1.What is the main solvent within the cell? What percentage

1.What is the main solvent within the cell? What percentage of t… Show more Chapter 2: The Composition of Cells 1.What is the main solvent within the cell? What percentage of total cell mass does this comprise? 2.Why is water polar? What kinds of molecules are readily dissolved in water and why? 3.What is a hydrogen bond and what kinds of characteristics do hydrogen bonds give to water? 4.Name the three major classes of polymer-based organic macromolecules and their building blocks. What is the fourth major class of organic molecules? 5.Know how to define if a molecule is a monosaccharide. What is a polysaccharide? Carbohydrate? 6.Be able to recognize the ring structures of ribose and of glucose. 7.Define and be able to recognize a glycosidic bond, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide. 8.Be able to describe (or draw) how a glycosidic bond is formed through dehydration. 9.Know how glycosidic bonds are named(e.g. α(14), β(14), α(16)). 10.How are glycogen and starch similar in structure and function? How do they differ from one another? How does cellulose differ in structure and function from glycogen and starch? 11.List and describe four different roles performed by carbohydrates. 12.What do all lipids have in common (e.g. how is a lipid defined)? 13.Describe the structure of a fatty acid in detail. 14.What is a saturated versus an unsaturated fatty acid. 15.Be able to recognize a fatty acid, triacylglycerol, phospholipid, glycoplipid, and a cholesterol molecule. Know what structures these are each found in within the cell. 16.Define amphipathic. 17.Sphingomyelin is found in cell membranes. What is unique about this phospholipid? 18.What is the simplest phospholipid called? 19.Give two major roles that cholesterol plays in the cell. 20.What do DNA and RNA stand for? (give their full names) 21. What are the main roles within the cell for nucleic acid? 22.Be able to describe the basic structure of a nucleotide, including the different types of purines (adenine, guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, uracil), the two types of sugar (ribose, deoxyribose), and the difference between nucleoside and nucleotide. 23.Be able to describe the structure of a polynucleotide. Know how a phosphodiester bond is formed (dehydration synthesis), and know what the 5’-end and 3’-end are and how they create polarity for the polynucleotide strand. 24.Understand what complementary base pairing is and why GC is more tightly bound than AT. 25.Describe the structure of DNA. Include in your description the sugar-phosphate backbone, complimentary base pairing, anti-parallel polynucleotide strands, major and minor grooves. 26.Name the functions of proteins within the cell. Which of these is the most fundamental? 27.What is the basic structure of an amino acid? Be able to recognize this basic structure and give the components found as part of it. 28.Amino acids are grouped according to their R-groups. Name the four groups. What kind of chemical bonds can each group of amino acid R-group enter into? 29.Be able to describe how a peptide bond is formed (dehydration synthesis). 30.What is a disulfide bond? What type of amino acid R-group forms a disulfide bond? What kind of protein needs a disulfide bond? 31.What types of non-covalent bonds hold proteins in secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure? What kind of covalent bonds hold tertiary structure together? 32.Match the proper structure with the correct level of protein organization (e.g. Primary , Secondary, Tertiary, or Quaternary structure). 1) bonding between 2 or more polypeptides, 2) local folding to form α-helix or β-sheet, 3) linear amino acid sequence, 4) folding of distant parts of polypeptide to form globular or fibrous protein. 33.What are the fundamental building blocks of cell membranes? Describe the structure of these building blocks and how they bring about the formation of a lipid bilayer in an aqueous solution. 34.What is membrane fluidity? What role do unsaturated versus saturated fatty acids play in fluidity? What role does cholesterol play? Why is membrane fluidity important? 35.Describe the fluid mosaic model. Be sure to include the following in your description: lipid bilayer, glycolipids, glycoproteins, integral protein, peripheral protein, glycocalyx. 36.What type of molecules can readily pass through the lipid bilayer by passive diffusion? 37.What are the two types of transport proteins described in your textbook? 38.What is the difference between passive and active transport? 39.Define proteomics. How does this compare to Genomics, Functional genomics, and Metabolomics? • Show less

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