2.Enzymes a… Show more Chapter 3: Cell Metabolism 1.Define

2.Enzymes a… Show more Chapter 3: Cell Metabolism 1.Define catalyst. What criteria make a substance a catalyst? 2.Enzymes are organic catalysts. Explain what this means. How does an organic catalyst differ from an inorganic catalyst? 3.Consider a chemical reaction that occurs in the absence of an enzyme. What does chemical equilibrium refer to? Is this equilibrium the same for every chemical reaction? 4.You place two reactants into a beaker of water. Over time they will connect and form a new product. What three criteria are needed for the molecules to connect? How does an enzyme help fulfill these criteria? 5.Define transition state, and activation energy. 6.Substrates bind at the active site of enzymes. Describe two models for how the substrate interacts with the enzyme active site 7.What is a coenzyme? What is a prosthetic group? 8.What does NAD+ stand for? How does this molecule act as a coenzyme? 9.Look at table 3.1. What does this indicate about the importance of vitamins (e.g. why do you think they are needed)? What kinds of functional group transfers are performed by coenzymes, in addition to electron transfer? 10.Define allosteric regulation and describe what feedback inhibition is. 11.What is covalent modification? Give an example of this type of enzyme regulation. 12.What is Gibbs free energy (G)? 13.Does a favorable chemical reaction have a negative or positive ΔG? What does ΔG stand for? Does a favorable chemical reaction require the input or release of energy? 14.If one knows the G value for each reactant and product in a chemical reaction, how can they determine if the reaction is positive or negative? 15.An unfavorable reaction can be coupled with a favorable reaction to make it move forward. What is one of the most common favorable reactions used for this? If given two reactions that are coupled how can you determine if the favorable reaction has enough energy to drive the unfavorable? 16.Know what ATP stands for, how much energy is released with ATP hydrolysis, and how this drives unfavorable reactions. 17.Be able to give the two different chemical reactions for how ATP can be hydrolyzed. Know what inorganic phosphate and pyrophosphate are. Which type of ATP hydrolysis releases the most energy? 18.Be able to recognize a molecule as ATP, and describe what makes its phosphate bonds high energy. 19.Define metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism. 20.Be able to describe the glycolysis pathway in brief; What is the starting reactant? What is the end product? What are the two main stages of glycolysis and what does each stage accomplish? Why are all of these steps needed (e.g. why bother with the pathway? Why not evolve in a way that the initial reactant converts to the final product in one step?)? 21.What is the overall gain of ATP and NADH in glycoslysis? 22.Know the following names of glycolysis intermediates and where they fall in the pathway: glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, phosphoenol pyruvate, pyruvate. 23.Describe the Link step (e.g. oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate). Know the name of the initial reactant and final product. How many carbons does pyruvate have compared to acetyl-CoA? What happened to this carbon? Is oxidation/reduction occurring here? What reduced coenzyme is formed in this process. What is oxidative decarboxylation? 24.Know what reduction and oxidation are and what this looks like chemically in the citric acid cycle. 25.What is another name for the citric acid cycle? Where do either of these two names come from (what are they based on)? 26.What is the first reaction of the citric acid cycle? 27.Look at the citric acid cycle. Know where CO2 is released, where GTP is formed and where NADH and FADH2 are released. Know what molecule is fed into the cycle, and which molecule is regenerated. 28.In general, understand what role oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain play in the process of aerobic respiration. How many ATP are formed from one molecule of NADH? From one molecule of FADH2? 29.Know how many complexes are found in the electron transport chain, which ones are hydrogen pumps, which complexes receive electrons from NADH, and from FADH2, and what the final electron acceptor is. 30.What is the overall reaction of aerobic respiration? What is the total yield of ATP from aerobic respiration? 31.What is the overall chemical reaction for aerobic respiration? How does this compare to the overall reaction for photosynthesis? 32.Describe the light reaction and the dark reactions for photosynthesis. What is the main function of each? What initial reactants and final products occur for each? 33.Give two examples of an anabolic pathway used to synthesize carbohydrates. 34.What are the main high-energy molecules that are used to drive the unfavorable reactions of biosynthesis? 35.What is nitrogen fixation? How does the nitrogen (N) that bacteria obtain for their proteins differ from the N obtained for animals? 36.What are the basic steps of nucleotide synthesis? 37.Which is made first ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides? • Show less

                                                                                                                                  Order Now

Place Order