Term Project 2 (25%)
Objectives and Format
The objectives of this second term project are to summarize and discuss the natural geohazards that are or may be encountered in a major city in western Canada. The cities from which you can choose are as follows (chose only one!): Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver. You should consider the greater urban area for the city that you choose. For example, if you choose Vancouver, do not necessarily restrict your discussion just to the formal city of Vancouver but be sure to include the surrounding municipalities (e.g., West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby, Richmond, etc.) If you would like to choose a city that is not on this list, please contact your instructor BEFORE you undertake the research for this project. Importantly, because GEOL 1410 is a course in geological sciences, it is expected that the major focus of your paper will be on geological natural hazards.
You may organize your material in whatever manner is appropriate for the urban area and geohazards you are discussing. The following points may help you compose an organized and complete overview (not necessarily in any order and do not necessarily limit your comments to just these points): Setting (geological, hydrological, climatic, geographic, etc.); magnitude and frequency of events; predictability; probability and potential for future events; processes, causes and linkages among multiple hazards; short and long term mitigation techniques and efforts; economic and social impacts; role of government in prediction, mitigation and remediation. However, do not take this as a check-list of topics to be covered. The urban area that you choose may require other specific topics that are not included in this list.
Written Term Projects
GEOL 1410 Natural Disasters and Global Change is designed to fulfill the University’s “written English”(W)
requirement through the submission and evaluation of two significant written assignments or term projects. Each
of these projects is worth 25% of your total mark; each will be evaluated and graded on the following criteria and weighting:
i. Annotated bibliography (30%). An annotated bibliography is an alphabetical listing of sources that are important or critical for your research project and that you will likely be using in your paper. Each reference item must be listed in the required reference citation format and includes a short paragraph or several sentences (“annotation”) that describe the usefulness of the reference, its contribution and/or importance. The required citation format is outlined below. Be sure to follow this format. Importantly, one of the main objectives of preparing an annotated bibliography is to demonstrate that you have done the required research on your project topic. As such, it should be as complete as possible. Indeed, often the annotated bibliography list will be longer than the reference list that is actually submitted as part of your paper. The annotated bibliography must be on the topic of your paper.
The University has an exceptional Library system with a large number of quality peer-reviewed scientific journals available both in-house and on-line. Use of non-refereed, non-reviewed sources (including most ‘encyclopedias’) is generally not acceptable in scientific writing at the university level. In particular, use of newspapers and non-refereed on-line sources such as ask.com, about.com, Wikipedia, etc. is not permitted for these projects.
For the citation format: Here are the examples that you can follow:
Referencing Citation and Reference Style
The required reference style should be that of the journal Sedimentary Geology. You should consult a recent issue of this journal (available through the University Library). Briefly, this reference style is as follows (taken from Sedimentary Geology Guide for Authors):
1. All references cited in the text are to be listed in a separate section at the end of the paper. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spellings of authors’ names and publication years are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list. Do not type author’s and editor’s names in capitals.
2. In the text refer to the author’s name (without initials) and year of publication, followed – if necessary – by a short reference to appropriate pages. Examples: “Because Peterson (1994) has shown that…”. “This is in agreement with results obtained later (Kramer, 1996, pp. 12-16)”
3. If reference is made in the text to publications written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used, followed by “et al.”. This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of authors and all co-authors must be given in full.
4. References in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors’ names, and chronologically per author. If an author’s name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors, the following order should be used: Publications of the single author, arranged according to publication year – publications of the same author with one co-author, arranged according to publication year – publications of the author with more than one co-author, arranged according to publication year.
The following system should be used for arranging references:
a. Journal papers: Names and initials of all authors, year. Title of paper. Journal name given in full, volume number (issue number): first and last page numbers of the paper.
Elbaz-Poulichet, F., Guan, D.M., Martin, J.M., 1991. Trace metal behaviour in a highly stratified Mediterranean estuary: the Krka (Yugoslavia). Marine Chemistry 32, 211-224.
b. Monographs: Names and initials of all authors, year. Title of the monograph.Publisher, location of publisher.
Zhdanov, M.S., Keller, G.V., 1994. The Geoelectrical Methods in Geophysical Exploration. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
c. Edited volume papers: Names and initials of all authors, year. Title of paper. Names and initials of the volume editors, title of the edited volume. Publisher, location of publisher, first and last page numbers of the paper.
Thomas, E., 1992. Middle Eocene-late Oligocene bathyal benthic foraminifera (Weddell Sea): faunal changes and implications for ocean circulation. In: Prothero, D.R., Berggren, W.A. (Eds.), Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 245-271.
d. Conference proceedings papers: Names and initials of all authors, year. Title of paper.Name of the conference.Publisher, location of publisher, first and last page numbers of the paper.
Smith, M.W., 1988. The significance of climatic change for the permafrost environment.Final Proc. Int. Conf. Permafrost. Tapir, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 18-23.
e. Unpublished theses, reports, etc.: Names and initials of all authors, year. Title of item. All other relevant information needed to identify the item (e.g., technical report, Ph.D. thesis, institute, etc.).
Moustakas, N., 1990. Relationships of morphological and physicochemical properties of Vertisols under Greek climate conditions.Ph.D. Thesis, Agricultural Univ. Athens, Greece.
5. In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. Titles of publications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a note such as ‘(in Russian)’ or ‘(in Japanese, with English Abstr.)’ should be added at the end of the reference.
Although use of non-refereed online sources is strongly discouraged for these projects, there are some instances in which citing a web page are appropriate (e.g., most USGS web pages). These should be cited in your references list as follows:
Name and initials of author(s), year (or n.d. if no date is available). Title of article. Title of web site or page.Retrieved date.From URL.
Landsberger, J. n.d. Citing Websites. Study Guides and Strategies.
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