The paper has made three main contributions firstly differentiating the concept of brand attachment and brand attitude theoretically, observing these effects in terms of consumer purchase behavior. The researcher defines conceptual properties as the strength of the brand to create rich retention network with the brand the consumer is able to easily recall the brand. Brand self-connection which involves the presence of emotional connection, the researcher developed a scale to match the properties of brand construct, and generated tools to measure to tap brand self-connection and brand feelings. The objective of the article was to determine whether brand attachment adds value; to succeed the brand must dominate others which could be done though awareness, repetitive advertising the brand must aim to develop an association as it would lead to loyalty which would enable the firm to generate cash flows in future.
Using the brand experience scale to profile consumers and predict consumer behavior
Researchers have expressed great concern in the area of brand experience and have acknowledged its importance for developing marketing strategies for goods and services. The paper aims to investigate the relation between attitudes and purchase intention in relation to different consumer types. The paper intends to focus on two major first to construct a typology of consumer that prefer different experiential appeals, secondly what relationship does they bear between brand attitude and purchase intention. The concept of experience has many variants from product experience to aesthetic experience. A concept that approaches these experiences in an enhanced manner is brand experience which gauge internal consumer response as well as behavioral response. The researcher says it can be positive, negative, short-lived or long-lasting. Brand experience includes various dimensions sensory dimension and affective dimension, brand experience lies in the intensity of these elements. The paper defines attitude as the internal evaluation of an object, a stronger brand attitude would not only lead to buying a specific product but the willingness to pay a premium price for that. To measure the relationship under discussion the researchers prepared a questioner consisting of two sections, in the first section consumers were asked about their sensory brand experience trying to measure the impression of the brand towards the individual, each questioner referred to a brand and respondents were asked to rate with respect to that brand. The results of the research reveal that different consumer groups prefer diverse experiential appeals; this typology will be further used to determine consequences of experiential marketing. The relationship proved to be strongest for holistic consumers who are concerned about all sorts of experience ranging from (sensory, behavioral, etc.). The results indicate that experiential appeals activate impulse behavior; in this case the consumer is willing to buy the product without further scrutiny. The study reveals that the consumer market is segmented based on the psychological perception of experience. Therefore marketers need to develop experiential techniques to cater to their consumers and not just one type of strategy will be sufficient to keep them intact, this is the only way the firm would be able to compete in the market. The key lies in learning what people are looking for the idea is to apply an integrated marketing strategy so we provide greater value to the target market than by any other competitor. To do so we need to provide unique benefits.
Building Consumer-Brand Relationship: A Cross-Cultural Experiential View
The paper aims to report a cross-cultural comparative study, brand related communication has stimulated brand managers to seek innovative ways to create mutually beneficial relationship with consumers. Chinese cellular phone users had reached to one twenty million, representing the world largest phone market, previous research suggest consumers are becoming more sophisticated. The paper aims to test a general framework for building consumer-brand relationship. The findings reveal that consumer brand relationship work through brand association, brand personality, brand attitude and brand image. Brand experiences are private events that occur in reaction to stimulation and often result from direct observation; these states can be categorized into rational activities emotional response or behavioral intentions. Brand experiences are therefore created in response to brand related stimuli, brand experience is divided in two categories individual and shared experience.it is stated that the individual experience influences the shared experience. The paper defines brand association as the information linked to the node in the memory, which creates an association in the minds of the consumer. Hence each experience can enhance experiences which are not formed independently. While brand personality is defined as the set of human characteristics that are associated with a given brand which are formed from any direct or indirect contact between the consumer and the brand. The paper describes brand attitude as the overall evaluation of the brand, it could be inferred that brand emotional experience can have positive or negative impact on consumers attitude. Previous studies have shown that brand attitude can be considered as a function of brand attributes. The study defines brand image as the network of associations constructed in the minds of the consumer creating a distinctive image. Further brand image has two components the association that consumers dispense and brand personality. Consumer and brand relationship occurs from consumption, a positive sensory experience would lead to robust association. According to the author this relationship is similar to human intimate relationships, which would be determinant for the success of the brand. It is a logical extension of brand personality. The results of the study indicate that sustainability of brand loyalty has become difficult, the study tested the hypothesis in a cross regional context as a result it was revealed that the individual experience has a profound impact on shared experience. Further the research revealed that brand association and brand personality influenced brand attitude and brand image.
Consumer response to different advertising appeals for new products: The moderating influence of branding strategy and product category involvement:
The aim of the paper is to study the interface effects between branding strategy and advertising execution strategy and product category involvement on consumer attitude towards purchase intention. The results show that extension of established brands is preferred over new brands; there is a strong association between advertising strategy and purchase choice. The study indicates that informational appeals are useful for high involvement goods while emotional appeals are useful for low involvement goods. The growth of the firms is dependent upon the development and marketing of new products, therefore the firms often try to link new products with an established brand. In view that the parent brand reputation will aid the new introduction. According to previous research done advertising plays a vital role in new product success or extension. As consumer attitude has been recognized as an important determinant in consumer decision making process. There is a lack of research on how different advertising strategies influence on product and brand evaluation for different branding strategies. In order to aid the previous study the researcher has conducted a study to test the comparative appeal of new brands and extensions under varying involvement levels. In the present scenario the repeated use of product extensions is based on the underlying assumption that consumers prefer extensions of over new brands, advertising strategies are more effective in extensions as they reduce the perceived. According to the author consumers are more influenced by previous opinions rather than new information, when a high reputation brand is extended to a new product it has greater chances of marketing strategy effectiveness. Advertising strategies can be categorized as informational, transformational or emotional appeal. The researcher has identified three risks that a consumer is exposed to while choosing between consumption of goods. Consumers are willing to pay price premiums to reduce these risks. The risks include financial risk, performance risk and social risk. According to the author in consumer marketing brands are the primary elements of differentiating between competitive offerings. Against the discussion above it is important that the management of bands is approached strategically.
How Is Manifest Branding Strategy Related to the Intangible Value of a Corporation?
The researcher has stressed upon the importance of brand equity, this requires the firm to deliver quality product together with strong creating brand association through appropriate communication with the potential consumers. There is a financial value attached with brands as they have the capability to generate future cash flows, it is depended upon the major component of branding that is customer loyalty. Therefore there is no debate that brands constitute the intangible value of a firm. According to the researcher there are three broad branding strategies that are being followed by companies. Firms began with a single product and become multiproduct over time. In such case the name used for the first product is used later to introduce new products this is known as the corporate branding strategy. While if the firm uses different names to add new products than it would be known as house of brands strategy. While mixed branding strategy is when firm acquire other firms or division of firm, using individual name for those products. The type of branding strategy being operated by a firm can be found by the product names. Which branding strategy the firm uses will have a direct impact upon the intangible value of the firm which eventually affects how the financial markets will view the firm. The paper aims to gauge the financial effects of the types of branding strategies being adopted by corporations. The three strategies are then plotted on a continuum. The advertising expenditure depends upon the branding strategy that the firm follow, corporate branding strategy usually generates advertising economies of scale compared to house of brand strategy where each product is advertised separately. The overall objective of the research is to investigate the relationship between branding strategies and the financial performance of the firm. The three branding strategies are associated with different benefits and short comings, as in corporate branding strategy with the benefits attached there is a risk of dilution of brand identity. Strong brand equity reduces firms susceptibility to competition eventually reduces the risk of variations in future cash flows. Brand creation stresses upon the idea of value creation rather than profit generation. Companies try to link the established brands for the introduction of new products hoping that the parent brand reputation will leverage the new introduction. In the current scenario advertising plays an important role in the extension acceptance eventually the success of the firm, as the role of attitudes has been recognized as an important factor in consumer decision making. As todays customer has not just limited his concern towards the functional benefits they are looking for memorable and unique experiences. The pattern observed in failed business ventures were faulty assumptions about consumer behavior, the research emphasis the need to construct brand attachment.
Syed Ehtesham Ali” in the article “Marketing Mix and Brand Reputation of Nokia” which was published on April 2008 tell us about the brand reputation of Nokia. He tells us that Nokia is the most selling brand in Pakistan in the mobile phone industry. In this article the author mentioned the importance of marketing mix that is price, product, promotion and place while selecting the brand in which he focuses on the Nokia brand .He gives focus to brand equity that it is very important variable. The author explains that a powerful brand means high brand equity which helps in achieving brand loyalty and awareness about the brand which makes the brand more reputable. Brand equity also helps in achieving perceived quality of the brand and strong brand associations about the brand. He explains that brand equity helps in reducing marketing cost of the product. “Ambler and Styles (1997) are of the opinion that brand equity could be measured from two perspectives. One is financial evaluation approach and the other is consumer-based approach”. Brand equity is also considered as an accumulated profit that could be realized at a future date. The author explains that stronger brands have their good reputation in the market and they help in creating effective marketing programs which is more than the customer is expecting. The author discusses about brand reputation and explains its importance in the success of the brand. He tells that both consumers and companies knows the importance of brand reputation of what the Brand is selling or buying. The author tells that globalization and the advancement in technologies have made the brand more competitive and because of this now the companies are more brands sensitive. Consumer preferences are nowadays becoming homogeneous because of globalization and advancement in technology and now buying are giving special attention to what they are buying as now awareness among the buyers have increases and because of competition consumers have more choices of which brand to select and they select this by giving proper attention to specific things such as price, product, promotion and place and then they decide to buy the desired brand. He explains that a reputable brand is strong asset because of its brand loyalty and its reputation. Companies which are in mobile industry are very concerned about the reputation of the brand and how it will affect in the international market share as this market is very much influenced by the brand reputation. Brand reputation is also very crucial for consumer purchasing behavior. In describing he tells that a brand is a relationship between reputation and promise. The author tells that if the promise is delivered, customers will be satisfied and this will keep them coming back to a company’s product. The author also tells about the advantages which brand offers to consumers
Firstly, brands inform the consumer about the product quality.
Secondly, brand names simplify shopping for consumers, by enhancing their ability to find the products that match their wants and needs, as opposed to generic branding.
Brand names allow consumers attention to be drawn to new products that are beneficial to them, since the brand is the first form of recognition.
The author tells that brand reputation is also represented by a belief that it is number one in the market. Brand reputation can be good or bad which depends on the consumer of how they think about the product with respect to knowledge they have about the brand.
The author tells that product quality is very important factor in choosing a brand. If a consumer think that the Nokia is better in quality from all the brands available in phone industry then he will prefer this brand. The author tells that higher price is a sign of high quality. Perceived quality is a source of consumer satisfaction it makes them to repurchase the product.
The consumers want the product that provides value to them and also which is good in quality but while purchasing they give focus to price of the product as if it is affordable to them or not. While selecting of products some consumers choose product by only giving focus to price and
They choose the product whose choice is less in the market and some consumers choose the product which are high price and which offers high quality.
The author while explaining the importance of 4Ps explains that “A promotion that provides incentives to try a new flavor or new use will be more effective if the brand is familiar and there is no need to combat a consumer skeptical of brand reputation (Pringle & Thompson 1999)”.He tells that brand with good reputation can be easily promoted and if a new brand has to be promoted it requires a lot of research and a good marketing plan. The author tells that advertising is very important variable while promoting a product which enhances its brand reputation.. Mobile phone industry is also influenced by advertising a lot which creates association about the brand.
The author explains that supply and availability at convenient locations are vital for brand reputation. If the brand is easily available it will have positive affect on the product and it helps in making brand reputation.
1The author in the article “Factors Affecting Consumer Choice of Mobile Phones: Two Studies from Finland” explains consumer choices in the mobile phone market. He explains that Mobile phone markets are one of the most unstable market today due to increased competition and change. As the usage of mobile phone is increasing and more and more companies are coming in the mobile industry which has increased competition among the brands. It has also given consumers different opportunities of selecting brand of their choice according to their own requirement and liking .So focus should be given on the consumer choices between different mobile phone brands. The articles explains that the telecommunications sector has been struggling over the past years, not only due to high prices companies paid for UMTS licenses
But also due to the global economic downturn. The author tells that mobile phones are becoming very important part of our lives. The research also found that MMS are used more and more in connection to television programs. The author explains that the majority of new mobile phones purchased are low-cost handsets without the latest technological features. The articles tells us that the technical problems are the basic reason to change mobile phone among student other than that price, brand, interface, and properties are the most influential factors affecting the actual choice between brands.
2The article that is under consideration is “the strategic role of branding in International marketing” written by Ho Yin Wong. In this article, the author has taken effect of branding a product in international marketing perspective. Marketing is done through different channels to capture consumers. In other words marketing is done to change consumer perspective. So branding of product is another strategy of consumer perception change.
Branding is recognized as a powerful strategic tool for marketing (Ho Yin Wong, 2005). The author studied it from perspective of global markets
With globalization, foreign markets are becoming more accessible and available (Ho Yin Wong, 2005).
Branding is defined as; “the brand is considered to be the sum of all the elements of marketing mix: product is just one element, alongside price, promotion and distribution”. (Ho Yin Wong et, 2005)
Now most of the domestic markets are coming closer due to globalization. New markets have new opportunities of growth; by changing consumer perception market share could be increased. Branding is becoming an important tool for changing consumer perception. Consumer behavior is based on consumer perception. The more their perception changes the more will behavior change towards a certain brand.
As a consequence consumer’s view branding as a variable that effects their buying decision. Because branding has its own benefits that consumer gets on purchasing a product. Therefore, consumer behavior changes sharply by branding a product. Now branding has different attributes such as brand image, brand value and brand loyalty. Brand image if positive attracts consumer positively and increase sales (Ho Yin Wong, 2005). Brand value denotes the branding efforts that build purchase confidence and create consumer loyalty by adding distinctive benefits surrounding the tangible features of a firm’s products or services (Ho Yin Wong, 2005). Brand loyalty fosters consumers buying consistently over time irrespective of the offerings from other brands and generally at regular prices” (Ho Yin Wong, 2005).
3In the article “Influence of Brand Name on Consumer Decision” the author “Tanveer Hasan” describes the consumer connection with the brands. Nowadays consumers are more aware of their brands. He is of the view that some people are very brand conscious and they buy brands just because of their brand name because in their view brand names are symbol of quality and they think that which has more grown brand name has better quality. Brand name has the power of attracting customers and buying products. It plays the most significant role in selection of product. People are more aware of branded and UN branded products and they tend to get more attracted towards branded products because of their brand names. The author while explaining states that some people are very loyal to their brands because of the level of satisfaction which specific brands provides to them.