Calorimetry-Enthalpy Reaction

Create a simple lab report following the set of instructions given in the first file attached. The second attachment is where the graphs of the temperature changes obtained from the experiment are located, use them in the paper, no need to make new ones( there are 3 trials of the experiment). The third file is a rather elaborate example to give you an idea on how it should be done, however just keep our lab report simple and only 2 pages long.

Calorimetry-Enthalpy Reaction
Recording of Raw Data
Time(in minutes: seconds) ( 0:01second)
Temperature( In Celsius Degrees)(( 0.50C)

00.00 23
00.05 30
01.00 34
01.50 35
02.00 35.5
02.50 35.6
03.00 35.7
03.50 35.7
04.00 35.6
04.50 35.5
05.00 35.2
05.50 35.1
06.00 35.0
06.50 34.8
07.00 34.9
07.50 34.5
08.00 34.5
08.50 34.3
09.00 34.2
09.50 34.0
10.00 34.0
10.50 33.9
Table 1: Data obtained for the first trial for the rise and fall in the temperature of the mixture of reactants and products during the reaction.

Table 2: Data obtained for the second trial for the rise and fall in the temperature of the mixture of reactants and products during the reaction.
Time(in minutes: seconds) ( 0:01second)
Temperature( In Celsius Degrees)(( 0.50C)

00.00 22.5
00.05 29.5
01.00 33.9
01.50 35.6
02.00 35.8
02.50 36.0
03.00 36.0
03.50 35.9
04.00 35.9
04.50 35.8
05.00 35.8
05.50 35.5
06.00 35.2
06.50 35.0
07.00 34.9
07.50 34.7
08.00 34.5
08.50 34.5
09.00 34.3
09.50 33.9
10.00 33.5
10.50 33.0

Table 3: Data obtained for the third trial for the rise and fall in the temperature of the mixture of reactants and products during the reaction.
Time(in minutes: seconds) ( 0:01second)
Temperature( In Celsius Degrees)(( 0.50C)

00.00 24
00.05 30.4
01.00 34.7
01.50 36.7
02.00 36.5
02.50 36.5
03.00 36.4
03.50 36.4
04.00 36.2
04.50 36.0
05.00 36.0
05.50 35.9
06.00 35.7
06.50 35.4
07.00 35.3
07.50 34.8
08.00 34.4
08.50 34.2
09.00 34.1
09.50 34.0
10.00 33.3
10.50 33.2

Qualitative Data:
Table 4: The qualitative data collected for the observations made of the products and reactants.
Before the experiment After the experiment
Reactant Colour Product Colour
CuSo Blue solution ZnSo Yellowish muddy solution
Zn Amorphous gray metal Cu Dark bronze metal
Processing Raw Data:
The calculation of the percentage uncertainty of the mass of Zn powder taken:
Mass of Zn powder taken for all the three trials:
Uncertainty of the weighting balance: ±0.01g
Thus, ±0.50 %.
The percentage uncertainty of the mass of CuSO4 solution of 25cm3, while the uncertainty of the pipette is ±0.05cm3
Thus, it is ±0.02%.
The uncertainty of the analog thermometer is ±0.5 0C.
In the report, I will evaluate the observations made from the third trial.
Trial 3:
Graph 3: A graph showing the change in temperature of the solution during the reaction.

Conclusion and Evaluation:

The graph where the temperature is decreasing was extrapolated to account loss of heat during the experiment. As a result, to obtain the maximum temperature during the experiment, it is the point where the line intersects the y-axis, when x=0.
The mass of Copper Sulphate taken: 25cm3±0. 20 %
Mass of Zn powder taken: 2.00g± 0.50%
The difference between the final and initial temperature of the solution obtained
Change in T (H2O) = Final –Initial
= 37-24
=13.
The total uncertainty for the experiment includes the uncertainity for mass of copper sulphate solution, percentage uncertainty of the difference in temperature, and the percentage uncertainty of mass of Zn= A+B+C
= 0.20+0.50+1.15
= ±1.85%
The heat change of the solution = -m(H2O) x C(H2O) x change in T(H2O)
= -25 x 3.12×13
=-1, 358.5 J mol-1
=1.36 kJ mol-1
Number of moles of CuSo4= 0.003 moles
Change in H reaction=
=54.47kJ mol-1±1.85%
=54.47± 2.18 kJ moJ-1
Three trials were conducted to find the enthalpy of the redox reaction that occurred between Zn and CuSO4 solution. The equation can be written as follows
CuSO4 (aq)+ Zn(s) Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq)
In the calculation the enthalpy, the values obtained were lower than the theoretical value of enthalpy of -219kJmol-1 2. The value of enthalpy from the third trial was – kJmol-1. The percentage error for the trial is %.
Considering the errors from the experiment, it implies that the experiment is not ideal. However, the errors can be reduced by making several improvements to the experiment to increase the accuracy of the results. Some of limitations in the design of the experiment that affects the accuracy of the results obtained include
1. The use of the copper calorimeter is not very effective as it allows for the escape of heat.
2. It is possible that the beaker absorbs some heat.
3. Only three trials were performed, as there is need for more trials to improve on accuracy.
4. The analog thermometer cannot guarantee accurate results.
These limitations make the sources of errors in this experiment.
However, there are various ways, in which the errors can be reduced or eliminated. First, a Styrofoam cup fitted with a polystyrene lid with an opening for putting a thermometer can be used to reduce heat loss from the copper calorimeter by collecting all the heat inside the cup (Brown and Mike 129). The Styrofoam cup does not react with chemicals and thus , it does not interfere with results unlike the copper beaker. In addition, conducting more trials would be relevant, as it enhances accuracy of the results. The use of a digital thermometer would be appropriate in order to record the results precisely. As a result, the above changes would be able to increase the accuracy of results in the experiment.

Works Cited
Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Chemistry – Higher Level. Pearson Education Limited,
2009. Print.

Sample 2
CHEMISTRY LAB REPORT – DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING AND
CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION
FINDING THE ENTHAPLY OF A REDOX REACTION
DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING:
ASPECT 1: RECORDING RAW DATA:
QUANTITATIVE DATA:
Table 1: The data collected for the first trial for the rise and fall in the temperature of the mixture
of reactants and products during the reaction
Time (in minutes:seconds) (± 0:01 second) Temperature (in ºC) (± 0.5ºC)
00:00 24º
00:30 30º
01:00 31º
01:30 32º
02:00 34º
02:30 37º
03:00 42º
03:30 46º
04:00 51º
04:30 53º
05:00 52º
05:30 52º
06:00 51º
06:30 47º
07:00 46º
07:30 48º
08:00 50º
08:30 51º
Table 2: The data collected for the second trial for the rise and fall in the temperature of the
mixture of reactants and products during the reaction
09:00 51º
09:30 50º
10:00 49º
10:30 48º
11:00 46º
11:30 46º
12:00 45º
12:30 45º
13:00 45º
13:30 45º
Time (in minutes:seconds) (± 0:01 second) Temperature (in ºC) (± 0.5ºC)
00:00 24º
00:30 35º
01:00 38º
01:30 50º
02:00 52º
02:30 59º
03:00 53º
03:30 52º
04:00 58º
04:30 59º
05:00 58º
05:30 57º
06:00 56º
Table 3: The data collected for the third trial for the rise and fall in the temperature of the mixture
of reactants and products during the reaction
06:30 56º
07:00 56º
07:30 54º
08:00 54º
08:30 54º
09:00 54º
Time (in minutes:seconds) (± 0:01 second) Temperature (in ºC) (± 0.5ºC)
00:00 24º
00:30 32º
01:00 38º
01:30 43º
02:00 47º
02:30 51º
03:00 54º
03:30 55º
04:00 56º
04:30 56º
05:00 57º
05:30 58º
06:00 57º
06:30 57º
07:00 56º
07:30 55º
08:00 55º
08:30 54º
09:00 53º
09:30 52º
10:00 52º
10:30 52º
11:00 51º
11:30 50º
12:00 49º
12:30 49º
13:00 48º
13:30 48º
14:00 48º
14:30 48º
QUALITATIVE DATA:
Table 4: The qualitative data collected for the appearance of the products and reactants
ASPECT 2: PROCESSING RAW DATA
Calculating the percentage uncertainty of the mass of Zn powder taken:
Mass of Zn Powder taken for all the three trials: 2.00 g
Uncertainty of the weighing balance: ±0.01 g
× 100
=
= ± 0.50 %
Calculating the percentage uncertainty of the mass of CuSO4 solution taken:
Mass of CuSO4 solution taken for all the trials: 25.00 cm3
Uncertainty of the pipette: ± 0.05 cm3
* 100
=
= ± 0.20 %
The uncertainty of the difference between the final and the initial temperature:
The uncertainty of the analog thermometer: ± 0.5º C
The uncertainty of the difference between the final and initial temperature = 0.5 + 0.5
= ± 1.00º C
Before the experiment After the experiment
Reactant Colour Product Colour
CuSO Blue solution ZnSO Yellowish muddy solution
Zn Amorphous gray metal Cu Dark bronze metal
Trial 1:
Graph 1: A graph showing the change in temperature of the solution during the reaction
The graph where the temperature is decreasing was extrapolated so as to account for the loss of
heat. The equation of the line of extrapolation:
Therefore, to find out the maximum temperature reached, the point where this line intersects the
y-axis has to be calculated. So, when x = 0,
Chnage in the temperature of the solution during the occurence of the reaction
The temperature of the solution (in
ºC)
0
15
30
45
60
Time (in minutes)
0 3 6 9 12
y = -0.6814x + 54.627
R² = 0.4713
y = 0 + 54.627
y = 54.63
As the least count of the analog thermometer is 1º C, we shall round this answer off to 56º C.
Mass of CuSO4 solution taken: 25.00 cm3 ± 0.20 %
Mass of Zn powder taken: 2.00 g ± 0.50 %
Difference between the final and initial temperature of the solution:
Δ T(H2O) = Final – Initial
= 56 – 24
= 32º C
Calculating the percentage uncertainty of the difference in the final and initial temperature:
The difference in the temperature = 32º C
The uncertainty of the difference in the temperature = ± 0.50º C
* 100
=
= ± 1.56 %
Total percentage uncertainty:
Percentage uncertainty of mass of Zn (A): ± 0.50 %
Percentage uncertainty of mass of CuSO4 solution (B): ± 0.20 %
Percentage uncertainty of the difference in temperature (C): ± 1.56 %
Total percentage uncertainty = (A) + (B) + (C)
= 0.50 + 0.20 + 1.56
= ± 2.26 %
The heat change of the solution = – m(H2O) × C(H2O) × Δ T(H2O)
= – 25 × 4.18 × 32
= – 3344 J mol-1
= – 3.34 kJ mol-1
As the Zn powder was added in excess, the limiting reagent for this reaction was the CuSO4
solution.
By assuming that no heat escaped and as CuSO4 is the limiting reagent of the reaction, the molar
heat change of the reaction:
Δ Hreaction =
(in dm3)
Number of moles of CuSO4 = 0.025
= 0.025 mol
= 0.03 mol
Δ Hreaction =
=
= – 133.76 kJ mol-1 ± 2.26 %
= – 133.76 ± 3.02 kJ mol-1
Trial 2:
Graph 2: A graph showing the change in temperature of the solution during the reaction
The graph where the temperature is decreasing was extrapolated so as to account for the loss of
heat. The equation of the line of extrapolation:
Therefore, to find out the maximum temperature reached, the point where this line intersects the
y-axis has to be calculated. So, when x = 0,
y = 0 + 56.818
y = 56.82
As the least count of the analog thermometer is 1º C, we shall round this answer off to 57º C.
Mass of CuSO4 solution taken: 25.00 cm3 ± 0.2 %
Mass of Zn powder taken: 2.00 g ± 0.50 %
Change in temperature of the solution during the occurence of the reaction
Temperature (in ºC)
0
15
30
45
60
Time (in minutes)
0 2 4 6 8
y = -0.1273x + 56.818
R² = 0.008
Difference between the final and initial temperature of the solution:
Δ T(H2O) = Final – Initial
= 57 – 24
= 33º C
Calculating the percentage uncertainty of the difference in the final and initial temperature:
The difference in the temperature = 33º C
The uncertainty of the difference in the temperature = ± 0.50º C
* 100
=
= ± 1.52 %
Total percentage uncertainty:
Percentage uncertainty of mass of Zn (A): ± 0.50 %
Percentage uncertainty of mass of CuSO4 solution (B): ± 0.20 %
Percentage uncertainty of the difference in temperature (C): ± 1.52 %
Total percentage uncertainty = (A) + (B) + (C)
= 0.50 + 0.20 + 1.52
= ± 2.22 %
The heat change of the solution = – m(H2O) × C(H2O) × Δ T(H2O)
= – 25 × 4.18 × 33
= – 3448.50 J mol-1
= – 3.45 kJ mol-1
As the Zn powder was added in excess, the limiting reagent for this reaction was the CuSO4
solution.
By assuming that no heat escaped and as CuSO4 is the limiting reagent of the reaction, the molar
heat change of the reaction:
Number of moles of CuSO4 = 0.03 mol
Δ Hreaction =
=
= – 137.94 kJ mol-1 ± 2.22 %
= – 137.94 ± 3.06
Trial 3:
Graph 3: A graph showing the change in temperature of the solution during the reaction
The graph where the temperature is decreasing was extrapolated so as to account for the loss of
heat. The equation of the line of extrapolation:
Therefore, to find out the maximum temperature reached, the point where this line intersects the
y-axis has to be calculated. So, when x = 0,
y = 0 + 65.134
y = 65.13
As the least count of the analog thermometer is 1º C, we shall round this answer off to 65º C.
Mass of CuSO4 solution taken: 25.00 cm3 ± 0.2 %
Mass of Zn powder taken: 2.00 g ± 0.50 %
Difference between the final and initial temperature of the solution:
Δ T(H2O) = Final – Initial
= 65 – 24
Change in the temperature of the solution during the occurence of the reaction
Temperature (in ºC)
0
15
30
45
60
Time (in minutes)
0 3.5 7 10.5 14
y = -1.3118x + 65.134
R² = 0.9883
= 41º C
Calculating the percentage uncertainty of the difference in the final and initial temperature:
The difference in the temperature = 41º C
The uncertainty of the difference in the temperature = ± 0.50º C
* 100
=
= ± 1.22 %
Total percentage uncertainty:
Percentage uncertainty of mass of Zn (A): ± 0.50 %
Percentage uncertainty of mass of CuSO4 solution (B): ± 0.20 %
Percentage uncertainty of the difference in temperature (C): ± 1.22 %
Total percentage uncertainty = (A) + (B) + (C)
= 0.50 + 0.20 + 1.22
= ± 1.92 %
The heat change of the solution = – m(H2O) × C(H2O) × Δ T(H2O)
= – 25 × 4.18 × 41
= – 4284.50 J mol-1
= – 4.29 kJ mol-1
As the Zn powder was added in excess, the limiting reagent for this reaction was the CuSO4
solution.
By assuming that no heat escaped and as CuSO4 is the limiting reagent of the reaction, the molar
heat change of the reaction:
Number of moles of CuSO4 = 0.03 mol
Δ Hreaction =
=
= – 171.38 kJ mol-1
Table 5: The calculated enthalpies of the redox reaction
Calculating the percentage error in the enthalpy calculated for different trials:
The accepted value for the enthalpy of the redox reaction between Zn and CuSO4: – 217 kJ mol-1
1

Trial 1:
Percentage error =
= 38.92 %
Trial 2:
Percentage error =
= 37.01 %
Trial 3:
Percentage error =
= 21.74 %
ASPECT 3: PRESENTING PROCESSED DATA
Trial Enthalpy (in kJ mol
1 – 133.76
2 – 137.94
3 – 171.38
Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Chemistry – Higher Level. Pearson Education Limited, 2009. 1
Print.
Graph 4: A graph showing the calculated enthalpies of the redox reaction between Zn and CuSO4
against the line representing the accepted enthalpy of the reaction
The graph shows that the enthalpy of the reaction calculated for the all the trials is lesser than the
accepted value of enthalpy. Moreover, it can be observed that as the trials increase, the value of
enthalpy comes closer to the accepted value showing that errors can be decreased with increasing
trials.
Enthaply of the reaction calculated for different trianls against the line
representing the accepted enthalpy of the reaction
Enthalpy of the reaction
0
55
110
165
220
Trials
0 1 3 4 5
CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION:
CONCLUSION:
Three trials were conducted to find the enthalpy of the redox reaction between Zn powder and
CuSO4 solution. The equation of the reaction is as follows
CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq)
The enthalpy of the reaction for all the three trials was calculated and compared to the literature
value of the enthalpy. By calculating the percentage error, it was found that the third trial had the
least percentage error among the three. This is furthermore demonstrated in the graph 4 in which
the enthalpy calculated for all the three trials against a line representing the literature value. The
values calculated are lesser than the literature value of the enthalpy. While the literature value is
– 219 kJ mol-1 , the value of the enthalpy of combustion for the third trial, which has the least 2
percentage error, was – 171.38 kJ mol-1. The percentage error for this trial is 21.74 %.
This error suggests that the experiment was not ideal. There are errors that can be avoided and
improvements that can be made so as to decrease the percentage error and increase the accuracy
of the result.
LIMITATIONS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
There are some limitations in the design of the experiment which affected the accuracy of the
data. They are:
1. The use of copper calorimeter was not very effective in preventing the escape of the heat
from the container as the stirrer became hot and thus must have absorbed some of the heat
and the opening in the calorimeter for the stirrer must also have led to the loss of heat.
2. The beaker in which the reaction occurred was made up of copper and this must have
affected the reaction.
3. It is possible that the beaker absorbed some of the heat released from the data.
4. Only three trials were conducted.
5. Use of analog thermometer led to less precise results.
Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Chemistry – Higher Level. Pearson Education Limited, 2009. 2
Print.
6. It was assumed that the amount of water is 25 cm3 and that the specific heat capacity of
the solution was 4.18 J g-1.
7. The copper deposited at the bottom was a lot and would have absorbed substantial
amount of heat.
SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT:
Limitation Type of error Suggested method of
improvement
Result after the
implementation of the
suggested improvement
Use of copper
calorimeter
This leads to a
systematic error as it
is not very effective
in trapping the heat
in. The heat would be
absorbed by the
copper beaker,
insulating material
and also escape
through the opening
above for the stirrer
A Styrofoam cup with a
polystyrene lid with a
hole for the insertion of
the thermometer should
be used as it would be
more effective that the
copper calorimeter in
trapping the heat inside.
The cup could be stirred
manually by hand by
rotating it so that there is
no need for an opening for
a stirrer which would lead
to escape of heat.
The value calculated for
the enthalpy of the
reaction would be closer
to the literature value and
thus, have less percentage
error as using Styrofoam
cup with polystyrene
would decrease the heat
loss significantly.
Use of beaker
made up of
copper
This would have led
to systematic error as
copper is one of the
chemicals involved in
this experiment and
thus using an
apparatus made up of
copper would
possibly have
affected the reaction.
The use of Styrofoam cup
would be better as it will
not chemically interfere
with the reaction.
This improvement would
lead to better results as
there is no more copper
available near the reaction
than the mass of copper
that is formed as a
product.
Use of a metal
beaker
This would have led
to systematic error as
the beaker used to
perform the
experiment was made
of copper and as
copper is a metal, it
would have absorbed
some of the heat
released.
The use of Styrofoam cup
would prevent this error
as Styrofoam is an
insulator and thus, would
not absorb a lot of heat
released in the
experiment.
This would lead to a better
result as there will be less
absorption of heat by the
container and thus the
temperature measured
would be higher and more
accurate and lead to a
value of enthalpy with is
closer to the literature
value.
Less number
of trials
This would not help
in preventing the
random errors caused
in the experiment
such as errors in
measuring the mass
or in recording the
time and temperature.
More number of trials
must be conducted.
This would increase both
accuracy and precision
and thus lead to better
results.
Use of analog
thermometer
This would lead to
systematic error as
the readings taken
with the help of an
analog thermometer
are not as accurate as
the readings taken
with the help of a
digital thermometer.
A digital thermometer
must be used in order to
record the data more
accurately.
This would increase the
accuracy of the data and
collected and thus, in turn
increase the accuracy of
the result.
Assumptions
about the
solution
It was assumed that
the complete 25 cm
of the solution was
water and so the mass
taken was 25 cm
the specific heat
capacity used for the
calculation was of
water i.e. 4.18 J g
The mass and specific
heat capacity of the
CuSO
account in the calculations
to get more accurate
results.
This improvement would
make the calculation of
the heat released during
the reaction and thus give
a value that will be closer
to the literature value.
The metal
deposited at
the bottom
A lot of copper
deposited at the
bottom and it would
have absorbed
substantial amount of
heat. Also, using a
calorimeter made it
impossible to see
how deeply the
thermometer was
dipped in the solution
and the accidental
touching of the tip of
the thermometer to
the metal deposited is
probably why there is
a double increase in
the temperature in the
first two trials.
Taking less concentrated
solution of CuSO
mean that there is more
water so that it is easier to
put the thermometer in the
solution without touching
the bottom. The
thermometer can be fixed
to the polystyrene lid so
that the thermometer does
not move down and touch
the deposited metal.
This improvement would
lead to accuracy in the
collection of the data for
the change in the
temperature and lead to
more accurate graphs.
This would make
extrapolation more
accurate and thus give a
more accurate result.
Works Cited
Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Chemistry – Higher Level. Pearson Education Limited,
2009. Print.

Bill Carlson

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