THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SEAFARERS TRAINING IN NIGERIA

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SEAFARERS TRAINING IN NIGERIA

 

 

 

 

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18 March 2017

 

 

ABSTRACT

Nigeria is one of the most developed countries in the African continent. It owes this development to the bulk number of resources it has that engage a high percentage of its population to various industries. However, it has been noted that one industry that has not been fully tapped is the shipping industry (Baird, A.J, 2004). The shipping industry covers a wide range of activities like fishing, traveling, oil exploration etc. However, it has been noted that the shipping industry has been stagnant over the years and does not contribute much to the GDP of the country in spite of the high potential it has.  As a matter of fact, it was discovered that there is a fleet of ships that are not being put to use and instead are left idle on the coastline. For the government to solve this issue, the Cabotage Act was formulated and through it, NIMASA was formed. When evaluated, NIMASA seems to have a solid plan to transform the country’s shipping industry, however, after years of its enactment, there is no change observed in the shipping industry hence, the need to investigate as to why the Nigerian maritime administration and safety agency is not effective in transforming the Nigerian shipping industry. To analyze NIMASA’s effectiveness, the three main aspects to be looked at are; the effectiveness of government policies on the shipping industry, the port development and modernization of the ports. These three aspects were regressed with factors that limit port growth in Nigeria and hence making it possible for one to know the kind of relationship the variables have with each other and the degree of strength a factor has to the other factor. The data was then analysed to show the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency in the Nigerian maritime industry and also helped to discover the factor bringing about the reason for its ineffectiveness.

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………I

CHAPTER 1

  • BACKGROUND……………………………………………………………….……………1
  • JUSTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………..………..2
  • AIM…………………………………………………………………………………….……..3
  • OBJECTIVES ……………………………………………………………………………….3
  • LIMITATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………….3
  • STUDY OUTLINE ………………………………………………………………………….4
  • SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………….4

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY

2.1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………..5

2.2 BENCHMARK FOR CREATING AN EFFECTIVE MARITIME TRAINING SYSTEM……………………………………………………………………………5

2.2.1 APPLYING STANDARDS THAT ARE INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED……..5

2.2.2 COOPERATION WITH INTERNATIONAL MARITIME EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING INSTITUTIONS…………………………………………………………………….7

2.2.3 FULFILLING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PEOPLE……………………………………………………………………………………….7

2.2.4 INTERACTIVE MARINE INDUSTRY TO MEET REQUIREMENTS………………………………………………………………………………8

2.2.5 INCORPORATING NEW TECHNOLOGY……………………………………….…8

2.2.6 UPGRADING SYSTEMS IN THE MARINE INDUSTRY……………………………………………………….……………………………9

2.2.7 ENGULFING EVERY STAGE OF MET FOR UNIFORMITY…………………………………………………………………………………..10

2.2.8 BALANCING REQUIREMENTS……………………………………………………………………………………..10

2.3 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS……………………………………………………………11

2.3.1 PROTECTING DOMESTIC WATERS……12

2.3.2 ENCOURAGE THE ACQUISITION OF SHIPPING TECHNOLOGY BY CREATING A DIVERSIFYING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE INDUSTRY……………………………………………………………………………………12

2.3.3 IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY……………………………………………12

2.3.4 PROTECTING THE NATION’S SECURITY INTEREST…………………………..13

2.3.5 ENHANCING DOMESTIC WATERBORNE TRANSPORTATION……………….13

2.3.6 INCREASING THE NATIONAL FLEET……………………………………………..13

2.3.7 DEVELOP SHIP BUILDING AND REPAIR CAPABILITY………………………….13

2.3.8 ESTABLISH THE CABOTAGE VESSEL FINANCING FUND……………………14

2.3.9 ENLIGHTENING POSSIBLE INVESTORS TO PARTICIPATE IN CABOTAGE TRADE THROUGH SEMINARS, CONFERENCES WORKSHOPS, ETC………………14

2.4 CHANGES TAKING PLACE……………………………………………………………..14

2.5 THE CABOTAGE ACT……………………………………………………………………15

2.6 ENACTMENT OF THE CABOTAGE ACT………………………………………………16

2.7 METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………….17

2.7.1 RESEARCH DESIGN………………………………………………………………….17

2.7.2 DATA COLLECTION……………………………………………………………………18

2.7.3 QUESTIONNAIRE………………………………………………………………………18

2.7.5 SAMPLING AND PARTICIPANTS……………………………………………………19

2.7.6 DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………19

2.7.7 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION………………………………………………………….19

2.7.8 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………20

CHAPTER 3

DATA ANALYSIS

3.1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………….21

3.2 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………21

3.2.1 AGE………………………………………………………………………………………21

3.2.2 GENDER…………………………………………………………………………………22

3.2.3

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR …………..………………………..23

3.2.4 DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES………………………………….24

3.2.5 MODERNIZATION…………………………………………………………….………..25

3.2.6 LACK OF UPGRADING SYSTEMS IN THE MARINE INDUSTRY…………………………………………………….………….…………………26

3.2.7 MATCHING SKILLS AND EDUCATION…………………………………………………………………………………27

3.2.8 INABILITY TO FULFILL THE WISHES OF THE PEOPLE …………………….………………………………………………………….………………28

3.2.9 POOR COOPERATION WITH SHIPPING INDUSTRY TO MEET THEIR REQUIREMENT…………………………………………………………………..……………29

3.2.10 POOR ADOPTOPN OF TRAINING PROGRAMS ………………………………………………………………………….……………..………30

3.3 REGRESSION TESTS……………………………………………………………………31

3.4 MODERNIZATION………………………………………………………………………..32

3.4.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MODERNIZATION AND UNADAPTING OF PROGRAMS………………………………………………………………….………………….32

3.4.2 MODERNIZATION AND MATCHING SKILLS AND EDUCATION…………………………………………………………….…………………..33

3.4.3 MODERNIZATION AND LACK OF FULFILLING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PEOPLE ………………………………………………………………………………..………………….34

3.4.4 MODERNIZATION AND POOR INTERACTION AMONG SAILORS …………………………………………………………………………….…………………..35

3.4.5 MODERNIZATION AND POOR ADOPTOPN OF TRAINING PROGRAMS ………………………………………………………………………….…………………….36

3.5EDUCATIONAL POLICIES……………….………………………………………………37

3.5.1 EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND LACK OF UPGRADING SYSTEMS IN THE MARINE INDUSTRY……………………………………………………………………..…37

3.5.2 EDUCATIONAL POLICIES ON MATCHING SKILLS AND EDUCATION …………………………………………………………………………………….…………..38

3.5.3 EDUCATIONAL POLICIES ON LACK OF FULFILLING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PEOPLE …………………………………………………………………………………………..……….39

3.5.4 EDUCATIONAL POLICIES IN POOR INTERACTION AMONG SAILORS……………………………………………………………………….…………….40

3.5. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND – POOR ADOPTOPN OF TRAINING PROGRAMS…………………………………………………………..…………………….41

3.6 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR ………………………………..42

3.6.1 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AND LACK OF UPGRADING SYSTEMS IN THE MARINE INDUSTRY ……………………………………………………………..………………………….………42

3.6.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AND MATCHING SKILLS AND EDUCATION ……………………………………………………………………………………..……………43

3.6.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AND LACK OF FULFILLING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE PEOPLE……………………………………………..………………………………………44

3.6.4 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AND POOR INTERACTION AMONG SAILORS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………45

3.7 GENERAL ANALYSIS OF FACTORS………………………………………………….46

3.7.1 MODERNIZATION AND THE FACTORS THAT LIMIT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NIGERIAN MARITIME TRAINING SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………..47

3.6.5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AND THE FACTORS THAT LIMIT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NIGERIAN MARITIME TRAINING SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………47

3.7.2 ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND THE FACTORS THAT LIMIT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NIGERIAN MARITIME TRAINING SYSTEM………………………………..……………………………………………………….48

3.7.2 ANALYSIS OF PORT MODERNIZATION ON THE FACTORS THAT LIMIT GROWTH OF THE INDIAN PORT……………………………………………………….49

3.8 SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………..50

CHAPTER 4

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………..52

4.2 MODERNIZATION AS A FACTOR OF EFFECTIVENESS………………………..53

4.2 EDUCATIONAL POLICIESPOLICIES AS A FACTOR OF EFFECTIVENESS……………………………………………………………………………54

4.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AS A FACTOR OF EFFECTIVENESS……………………………………………………….…………………..55

4.4 SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………56

CHAPTER 5

5.1 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………58

 

QUESTIONNAIRE…………………………………………………………………………….72

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Nigeria is one of the most developed African countries and is located in West Africa bordered by Cameroon on the right, Benin on the Left, Niger on the North and the Atlantic Ocean on the South. Its strategic position has played a big part in the development of its economy as it enjoys some of the equatorial climates that are majorly in the central parts of Africa but also spreads to the Western parts of the continent.

None the less, in spite of the country being the 21st largest economy in the world, it is also ranked the 20th in purchasing power parity globally (Baird, A.J, 2004). This is because it has many sectors that contribute highly to the economy. For example, it has an expanding manufacturing sector; other high performing sectors are the financial sector, communications, sector, entertainment sector technology and the service sectors. A general increase in the performance of these sectors has led to a decrease in the debt to GDP ratio to 8% (2015) from 11% (2012). Therefore, it can be noted that the economy is increasing gradually. In fact, Citigroup report published a report in 2011 indicating that Nigeria will have the highest GDP growth by the year 2050, also, from their statistics; they predict that Nigeria will be the 9th most developed country in the world.

The Nigeria’s labor force comprises of about 74 million people who are scattered into different industries’ in the country. In this population sector, 12.2% are in the accommodation, transport, food and real estate while about 30% of this population is in fishing, forestry, and farming (Baird, A.J, 2004).  Therefore, the Marine sector, as a result, is a significant contribution to the Nigerian economy as it impacts the; Food, transportation and fishing industries which are high contributors to the development of the country.

Because of the large population in the marine industry, it is important to consider the safety of seafarers as they comprise a considerable percentage of the Nigerian workforce. Therefore, the importance of analysing the effectiveness of sailors training in Nigeria, so as to determine what needs to be improved and what action is most effective.

1.2 JUSTIFICATION

It goes without saying that the maritime industry is of utmost importance in Nigeria’s economy as a good percentage of the labour force earn their source of livelihood from it. As a result, this sector tends to contribute a high proportion of the country’s GDP that in turn makes the country to have the largest economy in Africa and have the 21st highest GDP in the world (Baird, A.J, 2004). To maintain this status, it is necessary for the government of the country to look for ways to conserve the lives of seafarers due to the high risks they are exposed to on a daily basis. To be safe refers to being protected against any form of harm in different aspects. These aspects may be; physical, political, social, occupational, spiritual, etc. However, in maritime safety, the major issues looked at are; safety of human beings and their environment, the navigational system and efficient maritime transport.

Shipping is considered to be one of the industries that are considered the most dangerous in the world; this is due to its nature of operations and the bulk of items that are being exposed to risk (Baird, A.J, 2004). Because of this, the shipping business is governed by strict rules and regulations that make various companies in the industry act in a disciplined and organized manner so as to prevent losses.

Safety, therefore, it is key to ensure that all the shipping activities are carried out in an organized manner that in turn reduce the risks and also streamline all the activities that go on in a ship. Also, ships are extremely expensive vessels, therefore, it is important to make sure the ships serve for an extended period to ensure the owners of the ship get their investments back and not suffer losses instead.

The full implementation of the rules and regulations in the shipping industry has led to a reduction in most of the accidents, casualties and oil spills that have been happening in the recent past. Hence, meaning that the rules and regulations have been a bit effective so far. However, there has been an increase in the number of incidents recently that indicate that there are a few loopholes in those rules and regulations, hence the need for a fully implemented safety culture. Therefore, the reason for this study is to analyze the effectiveness of seafarers training in Nigeria.

1.3 AIM

The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system.

1.4 OBJECTIVES

To achieve the purpose of this study of analyzing the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system, the following objectives were formulated to conceptualize and understand the importance of this study:

  1. Review the recent training strategy/policy adopted by the Nigerian maritime authorities.
  2. Identifying the different study routes of becoming seafarers in Nigeria
  3. Reviewing the recent seafaring program conducted by the Maritime Authority
  4. To determine the best training system that adds more value to the Nigerian Seafarers

 

1.5 LIMITATIONS

To analyze the effectiveness of seafarers training in Nigeria, it was imperative that questionnaires be issued to the seafarers; therefore, a direct limitation is the transportation costs to the seafarers which lead to additional expenses of the study. In addition to this, the time frame to complete this research is limited, hence, inability to get and analyze sufficient data. In addition to this, the nature of this research requires the researcher to issue questionnaires to experienced seafarers who have been in the industry for a considerable period. This is a hindrance to the study since issuing a questionnaire to an inexperienced seafarer may lead to inaccurate results. This increased the time taken for research to look for experienced sailors.

 

1.6 STUDY OUTLINE

The study of analyzing the effectiveness of seafarers training in Nigeria is divided into six separate chapters namely; the introduction as the first chapter, literature review, and methodology, the second chapter, data collection the third, data analysis as the fourth chapter, findings of analysis and reflection and conclusion of the study. Chapter 1 includes the introduction part that covers; background of the survey, justification of the study, aim of the study, objectives of the study, and limitations of the study. Chapter 2 of the study includes the Literature review of the study which includes both theoretical and empirical. Chapter 3 comprises of data collection. Chapter 4 comprises of an analysis of the data collected. Chapter 5 consists of the findings from the analyzed data, and Chapter 6 summarizes and reflects on the study.

1.7 SUMMARY

The effectiveness of seafarers training in Nigeria is important since the GDP of the country greatly depends on it. This is because of a high proportion of the work force is in the marine industry. Therefore, it is important to determine the effectiveness of the training seafarers get for them to do their work without the various risks sailors face. Analysis of the various trainings the seafarers get will make it easy to narrow down to the best training thus leading to its implementation and conservation of the country’s GDP. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system, and the limitations of the study included time constraints, financial constraints, inadequate personnel to answer questionnaires and insufficient data to carry out the research. The research is divided into six chapters which include; introduction, literature review, data collection, data analysis, findings of analysis and conclusion and reflection of study.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter two of this research highlights the literature review and methodology used to come up with viable conclusions in this research topic. To bring the conclusions in light, secondary data collection was done to get more information about this research topic from previous studies that have been published (Baird, A.J, 2004). The already published works shed light on what was concluded by other researchers and also brings new ideas into the research than that which the researcher already had. To analyze the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training systems, a guideline was sought that would determine the base line of an effective maritime system. After that, a review of the Nigerian maritime training system is done by researching on how it came about and what its mandate is from the Cabotage Act.

To bring about the objective of this study in this chapter, the literature review is divided into the following parts; part one is about developing an effective maritime education that is used as a benchmark for checking the viability of Nigeria’s Maritime training systems (Baird, A.J, 2004). Part two expounds on the Cabotage Act, its formation, how NIMASA came about, the role and mandate of NIMASA, and the enactment of the Cabotage Act, NIMASA, and implementation of Cabotage Act and Capacity building. This part, (two), gives the relevance of this study as it checks whether NIMASA is effective with regards to the Cabotage Act.

2.2 BENCHMARK FOR CREATING AN EFFECTIVE MARITIME TRAINING SYSTEM

The main objective of the maritime education and training system is to provide manpower to the shipping industry (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). In addition to this, the system also ensures that the personnel it supplies to the shipping industry are disciplined enough to follow protocol and also careful to avoid mistakes or rather accidents that may have huge repercussions (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). None the less, because shipping is a worldwide platform, since it operates in a multinational and multifunctional environment, seafarers are required to take into considerations all the different environments that affect the shipping industry and all the standards with all their regulations (Baird, A.J, 2004). Because of the nature of the shipping industry, in that it is a worldwide platform, formulation of an effective maritime and education system was based on the following principles (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011).

2.2.1 Applying standards that are internationally recognized

Having standards that are internationally recognized such as standards outlined by STCW-78/79 (Standards of Training, certification and watchkeeping of seafarers is of utmost importance. Since one major characteristic of the shipping industry is that it is multinational, once a seafarer crosses into another country’s waters; it is important for the seafarer to know the do’s and don’ts while in non-territorial waters (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). None the less, STCW-78/79 maintains that all the ship staff should be able to communicate in the English language to avoid near miss incidents or in the worst case scenario’s an accident. If this were not the case, it would be difficult to communicate with a different ship from a different country and thus increase the risk of an accident (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977).

In addition to the application of the English language while in the ship, the standards also play a part in the qualifications of a seafarer in terms of educational coverage. In STCW-78/79, there are two phases; the first phases include the mathematical units and the main aspects of navigation which in turn provide a base for engineering education (Baird, A.J, 2004). The second phase is mainly concerned with on deck and the competency of the engineering officer. This system of education makes it easy for each seafarer to know their role on the ship and also be competent enough in their areas of responsibilities, therefore, reducing the risk of accidents because of incompetence.

2.2.2 Cooperation with International Maritime educational and training institutions

Cooperation with other maritime education and training institutions is important mainly because it improves the coordination and cooperation of seafarers. This, in turn, improves the national and international ties between two or more different training institutions, be it local or international (Baird, A.J, 2004).  Since it has been established that there is no marine training institution that  can be said to have effectively achieved the standards of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the only way to get close to achieve those standards is by working together with other institutions (International Maritime Organisation, 2004).

By cooperating with other institutions, any recent and new developments in that training institution can be shared with others thus making it easy for both institutions to reach the International Maritime Organizations standards (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). This cooperation among two or more institutions makes it easy for the students to build rapport with each other thus increasing the level of trust they have with each other. Hence, every seafarer concentrates on his/her duty without the need of confirming if the other seafarer is performing his/her duties correctly (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011). This, in turn, reduces the risk of accidents or near-miss incidents.

2.2.3 Fulfilling the requirements of the people

It is important for the maritime training institute to provide a chance for the students in such institutions to progress their education without facing any difficulty whatsoever. Many at times, there are institutions that do not offer the highest level of education that may enable one to be qualified for the job at hand, therefore, making a person with lower qualification to take up the role and increase the risk of accidents (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). Inability to meet the local requirements especially in the educational sector reduces the number of personnel who are employed as qualified seafarer (Baird, A.J, 2004). Since only qualified personnel can confidently take up the roles they have been given, most of the staff are often outsourced from other countries to fill in the gap. This, however, wasted the local resource and renderes them unproductive (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977).

Needless to say, the educational standards in such institutions should also be within the International Maritime Organization’s standards (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). This, therefore, ensures that the personnel from one institution has the same qualifications as the other personnel from another institution at the same level of education (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011). By keeping everything at par, different seafarers from different institutions can have a productive conversation with regards to issues they are facing.

2.2.4 Interactive marine industry to meet requirements

It is important for maritime education and training institutions to cooperate with other institutions to be able to share new advancements that have been developed in the field of marine training. It is important to cooperate with other institutions because each institution has its research and development department that make new advancements in this field (Baird, A.J, 2004). Since no maritime institution is considered to be performing up to standards, close cooperation with other institutions is important to achieve the outlaid standards altogether (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977).

In addition to this, cooperation with other institutions is important in that they can share with each other the latest available technology, in both software and hardware platforms (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). Such technology would only be of use only if the institution shares this technology with another institution in reality (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011).

2.2.5 Incorporating new technology

It has been noticed that there is a general increase in the number of ships worldwide, in addition to this, ships have increased in both size and speed (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). This, therefore, brings into play new challenges that have not been faced by previous sailors before as new risks come into play with every advanced technology. To curb this issue, it is important for the marine training institutions to search for new knowledge and training technologies to face the new challenges they face (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). Since the safety of seafarers is of utmost important in the shipping industry, it is prudent to run full mission based simulation training on the students which subjects them to peculiar and risky situations that encourage them to think critically. The use of such simulations makes a seafarer know the right action to take when a tragedy is about to take place.

Another way of achieving the goal of keeping in touch with new technology and training is by adhering to the International Maritime Organization – Standards of Training certification and watch keeping for seafarers (STCW-78/79).In addition to this, it is important to adhere to vocational standards that have been established and developed by other maritime nations for higher qualifications.

When adopting a new education and training technologies, it is also important for the students to be exposed to real life situations that would encourage them to develop planning and organization skills. This would, in turn, make them understand the issues and challenges that are faced by the different personnel in the ship (Baird, A.J, 2004). By understanding the challenges, it would be easier for the students to think critically about a solution to the issue at hand and therefore bring new knowledge to the industry (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011).

2.2.6 Upgrading systems in the marine industry

With regards to updating programs to cover new technologies, it is important that the institution’s program should be updated with the new and emerging technologies so that the students are kept up to date with what has been developed (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011). Since new technologies are meant to make a seafarers life much easier, it is imperative that they are taught how the new technology works and how it simplifies a seafarer’s life.

In spite of updating the institution’s program with regards to new technology, updating of programs can also be done with regards to ships software and hardware e.g. new circuit boards used in the ship etc. Embracing new technology in the shipping industry would mean that the ships are heading towards achieving the outlaid standards of the international maritime organization (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). New technologies bring to light some information that would be critical to reducing the risk of accidents and near miss incidents while at sea.

2.2.7 Engulfing every stage of MET to achieve uniformity

It is important that institutions incorporate all the stages of maritime education and training to make the students competent enough to handle challenges that they may face while at sea (Okoroji, L. and Ukpere, W.I, 2011). Skipping of any stage may render the student to be susceptible to error or rather mistakes that would, later on, increase the probability of accidents.

Therefore, it is important to adhere to all the requirements of International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) to make the student competent enough on the level of education he/she has attained (International Maritime Organisation, 2004).

2.2.8 Balancing requirements

The recruitment of seafarers has been a major challenge in the recent past. There has been a shortage in the number of people who join the Seafarer profession worldwide. Currently, however, there has been an increase in the number of individuals who have joined this profession, but still, only a limited number of people are qualified to hold such positions (Usoro, M.E, 2010). The reason for this low number of seafarers is because the shipping industry is highly specialized, mainly because of the recent technological developments that have taken place (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). It becomes, therefore, important for a seafarer of a certain rank to be skilled and knowledgeable in a specific area completely so as to be qualified for that position. This is because international rules state that only skilled sailors should be left in charge to man ships.

In addition to this, as the technology in shipping vessels increase, the personnel in these ships need to be able to apply what they have learned from the institution in real life situations or rather in practical settings (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). None the less, as stated earlier, recently, there has been a high turnout of students who intend to be seafarers; therefore, there is a high competition for people who wish to acquire such positions. With this kind of competition, only the right person with the required skills can qualify for the position. One aspect that is important to look at before being recruited is the periods of sea-going training and practical experiences the person has. The higher the experience, the higher the chance is of him/her being recruited (Usoro, M.E, 2010). Never the less, even after being recruited, the sailor joins as a junior officer and gains more experience as he learns from the superiors of the various shipping operations (International Maritime Organisation, 2004). By enabling him/her to gain more experience, the sailor will be able to match his academic studies and on-board training as he will be applying what he had learned in class to real-life situations.

2.3 Recent developments

In Nigeria, the agency that has the mandate to oversee the welfare of seafarers is the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA). The body is a part of the federal ministry of transport that was created by the merging of (NMA) National Maritime Authority and the Joint Maritime labour industrial council (JMLIC). NIMASA Act, Nigerian maritime administration and safety agency Act was established in 2007 to implement and enforce the Cabotage Act 2003 (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). None the less, for NIMASA to carry out its mandate effectively, it is subdivided into different sub units. It would be easier for the agency to manage and deliver on its main task if its different units carry out their responsibilities (Usoro, M.E, 2010). Somme of these units are; the registrar of ships unit, the seafarers training and certification development, the collecting agency for cabotage vessel and the cabotage enforcement unit. These units, although they concentrate on different things, they are all interlinked, and they all aim to enforce the cabotage act (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). It can, therefore, be noted that NIMASA has an enormous responsibility of ensuring the betterment of the shipping industry and the enforcement of the Cabotage Act.

In general, Nigerian maritime administration and safety agency Act of 2007 and the merchant Act of 2007 are meant to monitor, implement and enforce the  Cabotage Act 2003 by ensuring the following;

2.3.1 Protecting domestic waters

The Nigerian maritime administration and safety agency strives to ensure that there are many benefits that accrue from the shipping industry. None the less, it is NIMASA’s objective to improve the percentage of the Nigerian population that labour in the marine industry (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). By restricting the number of foreign vessels to use domestic waters, the local people will be encouraged to tap into the opportunities they see in the marine industry and venture more into the industry. By doing this, the GDP of Nigeria will increase, and the general development of the country will improve (Usoro, M.E, 2010).

2.3.2 Encourage the acquisition of shipping technology by creating a diversifying employment opportunities in the industry

As mentioned earlier, to achieve the international standards that have been set forth by the international maritime organization, there is the need for improvement in technology in the shipping industry. However, the technology that comes about in this industry is not centralized but instead comes from different institutions and marine training institutes (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). Therefore, it is wise for NIMASA to encourage diversifying of personnel from different parts of the world to acquire new technology they might have discovered (Usoro, M.E, 2010). By encouraging diversity and improvement in technology, the shipping industry in Nigeria is becoming better and better.

2.3.3 Improve environmental safety

Pollution is a major concern facing the world today, and water pollution has diverse effects especially in marine life (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). Since NIMASA is in charge of overseeing the state of affairs concerning seafarers, it was deemed important for it to also improve or rather reduce water pollution. Ensuring shipping vehicles are in great condition before they leave the shores so that there might be no issues, for example, oil spills, that may lead to the death of marine life (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). In addition to this, in an indirect way, the NIMASA also improves on environmental safety by ensuring the seafarers in the ship are qualified and are skilled enough to avoid incidents that may lead to accidents and near miss incidents.

2.3.4 Protecting the nation’s security interest

In the ocean, there might be a large area without any sea vessel being noticed. However, NIMASA is taking an extra step to ensure that no foreign vessel enters the Nigerian sea area without permission as this would be a security threat to the country. Furthermore, the agency keeps watch of pirates who may attack Nigerian vessels and blackmail the country for something in return (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010).

 

 

2.3.5 Enhancing domestic waterborne transportation

NIMASA aims to improve or rather increase waterborne transportation by making the shipping vessels more secure and safe such that the public would trust them safety (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). However, the safety of a shipping vessel covers a ton of things, such as the qualifications of the officers running the ship. The maintenance of the different parts of the ship and even the general security of the water body upon which the ships are using are also basic factors (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). NIMASA strives to enhance waterborne transportation by making sea traveling as safe as possible by checking on these items (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009).

2.3.6 Increasing the national fleet

Since it is NIMASA’s mandate to increase the number of Nigerian seafarers, it is important to show the Nigerian nationals that there is a shortage in the number of sailors in the country. By doing this, and especially in these hard economic times, the forces of labour supply and labour demand will be at work and eventually increase the supply of labour in the shipping industry (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). By increasing the national fleet, the supply of labour in the different areas of specialization in the shipping industry will increase and lead to an increase in the productivity of the Nigerian people.

2.3.7 Develop ship building and repair capability

Having ship building and repairs capability would save huge expenses that would have been incurred if ship building and repairs are done abroad. For example, she shipping of materials would be scrapped off from the list of expenses when repairs are to be done on the ships (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). This saves the Agency (NIMASA), a huge amount of cash that will be put into use elsewhere.  In addition to this, by having ship building and repairs capability, there would be more employment opportunities in the country to curb cases of unemployment (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009).

2.3.8 Establish the cabotage vessel financing fund

Finances are always a critical issue in any, business, organization, agency, institution, etc. Therefore, the importance of the cabotage vessel financing fund cannot be over emphasized (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009). This fund ensures that all the vessels are maintained and are ready to go into the sea or rather ocean when required to. It pays for services rendered during repairs and maintenance works when a ship docks and ensures a constant running of activities (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). Its main mandate is to ensure that there is no embezzlement of funds and that the funds are put to good use. This fund plays a critical role in the continuity and growth of the shipping industry in Nigeria in that it keeps all the shipping resources in check.

2.3.9 Enlightening possible investors to participate in cabotage trade through seminars, conferences workshops, etc.

By conducting seminars, talks, workshops and conferences, many investors would be encouraged to participate in this industry especially since it has a potential of higher growth in future. By conducting workshops, NIMASA gives detailed and extensive information to possible investors that would invest their money in this industry and ensure its growth (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005).

2.4 changes taking place

Before NIMASA took over to oversee the Cabotage Act, the body responsible for ensuring that there was an orderly development, protection in the shipping industry and to ensure that there was effective manpower training in the shipping industry was the National Maritime Authority, (NMA). The body was formed in 1987 on 11th May and was given the responsibility to maintain marine pollution and spillage in Nigerian waters (Bart Nnaji, 2005).

In 2003, with the development of the cabotage act, the shipping industry was only receiving an average of $25 million for development (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009). This amount, compared to the size of the country, is considerably small. The National Maritime Authority was dormant and only did a little to improve the shipping industry of Nigeria (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). In fact, the shipping industry was considered a honey pot plundered by successive governments and their agents.

All this however changed with the development of the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Act in 2007 (Bart Nnaji, 2005). This body ensured that about five percent of annual income is going to be used to develop the Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN) and about thirty-five percent of the income would be used to develop the marine infrastructure (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). This proportion would ensure that all the critical areas of seafarers are looked into and sorted out to ensure their safety when they go to sea (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005).

Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency also made a bold move by ensuring that all the shipping vessels in Nigeria whether indigenous or foreign must have Nigerian cadets on board (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). This is to ensure that they also gain sea-time experience as most of the work done by ship officers is practical and requires one to think critically when facing a situation (Bart Nnaji, 2005).

However, it has been noted that the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency, has not been effective in managing its funds and it is considered to be operating more of less the same way as the Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN) (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). Therefore, NIMASA has been made to be the approving authority and guarantor for beneficiaries of new cabotage vessels Finance Funds and banks are supposed to administer the funds instead of the former Ship Acquisition and Ship Building Fund (Bart Nnaji, 2005).

2.5 The Cabotage Act

The Cabotage Act was introduced in 2003 and was enacted in the year 2004. The Cabotage Act is regarded to be the most effective legislation that has guaranteed the employment of Nigerian nationals in the marine industry (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). The act achieves this by the restrictions it has put in place to ensure that it is only Nigerian nationals that can participate in cabotage trade along the coast of the country. It achieves this by the use of tariffs, licenses, fees and other trade restrictions.

Both the cabotage act and the cabotage guidelines have provisions that give Nigerian nationals the right of employment in the shipping industry and especially in cabotage vessels (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). For instance, the minister grants waivers to a duly registered vessel which is fully owned by Nigerian citizens, manned by Nigerian citizens and built in Nigeria (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). Once all there requirements are met, the seafarer is given a waiver and is exempted from the trade restrictions that are put in place for foreigners.

None the less, even if a sailor is given a waiver /license this year, it is not guaranteed that he/she will be given a waiver/license the following year (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). Instead, renewal of such a waiver will only be granted if the sailor has proven to be compliant with the provisions of the Act of Manning, ownership, and building of shipping vessels (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). In addition to this, the sailor must be able to provide evidence of providing practical training of Nigerian cadets on board and also provide NIMASA’s certificate of Manning compliance.

The seriousness of the Cabotage Act is seen by the unlimited authority the cabotage enforcement officers have on shipping vessels. The cabotage enforcement officers have the power to, with or without a warrant or court order, stop, board, detain and even search a vessel which they believe to have breached the requirements of the Cabotage Act. In addition to this, they have the authority to ask the captain of the ship to give information relating to the ship’s cargo, stores, etc. (Usoro, M.E, 2010).

2.6 Enactment of the Cabotage Act

The Cabotage Act, although formed in 2003, it became enforced in the year 2004. It was designed to restrict the participation of foreigners in Nigeria’s domestic coastal trade. It did this by the use of tariffs and collection of fees for registration (Chief Sarumi A.B, 2005). The issuance of waivers and licenses was done to be able to cover the administrative costs of the process of application of certificates to the issuance of the same (Kvinge, T. and Odegard, A.M, 2010). None the less, the fees and tariffs being imposed to foreigners are subject to inspection by the minister of transport of Nigeria and depending on the situation the shipping industry of Nigeria is facing. The ministry may decide to introduce punitive and deterrent measures in such tariffs and fees as may be deemed necessary to protect the sanctity of the Act (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977).

 

2.7 METHODOLOGY

Methodology section highlights the tools of data collection that were used to get data that is to be analyzed to be able to make an informed conclusion of the study (Usoro, M.E, 2010). Data collection is carried out in different ways and therefore, the need to highlight the exact methods that were used to make the reader understand the process that was followed and also to make him/her determine if the method the researcher followed is valid enough to make conclusions about the general population of the study. Different subjects discussed in this section include; research design, types of data, data collection, data analysis and ethical consideration (Usoro, M.E, 2010).

2.7.1 Research Design

The study of the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system requires one to collect data that is qualitative in nature since different people have different views regarding how effective the training system is. Quantitative research would, therefore, not be appropriate in this study as there are no means to quantify a person’s opinion with regards to the Nigerian maritime training systems (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977). The approach used to collect data took a shorter period as many respondents would give information at the same time and the data would be stored in the medium for long periods of time to allow analysis of the data (Usoro, M.E, 2010). None the less, to clearly understand the views of the respondents, a few of the respondents were given a chance to elaborate on their views on this study.

2.7.2 Data Collection

The researcher used primary data in this research and did not use any form of secondary data for complementary purposes. Instead, the researcher thought it would be better to perform two types of primary data collection strategies for research purposes (Marx, K. & Engels, F. 1977).

The first method of data collection only required the respondent to answer in a distinct way without giving any additional information while the other method of data collection allowed the respondent to give his/her views regarding the topic of study. Data was gathered from seafarers disregarding their rank in the shipping industry.

2.7.3 Questionnaire

The first primary collection method used by the researcher was the questionnaire. It was a two-page document filled with nine closed-end questions that required the respondent to tick where he/she deems appropriate. Sailors are busy people; therefore, this method of data collection seemed fit as it would require the Respondent to use barely three minutes of their time to fill the questionnaire (Bart Nnaji, 2005). In addition to this, the filling of questionnaires does not require the supervision of the researcher. Hence, the researcher can distribute questionnaires to, say, five to ten people at a go, and collect all their questionnaires after three minutes (Bart Nnaji, 2005). Use of questionnaires is important in this kind of research as it does not involve the bias of the researcher and the data being collected is raw data that would reflect the true state of affairs in the field of study.

2.7.4 Interviews

The researcher saw it fit to couple the questionnaire method of data collection with the use of interviews. These two methods of data collection complement each other as the advantage of one method is the disadvantage of the other (Bart Nnaji, 2005).. Therefore, by the use of these two methods, a more comprehensive conclusion would be arrived at as the interview method of primary data collection allows the researcher to get more information and seek clarification as to why a respondent perceives differently on another interviewee.

2.7.5 Sampling and participants

The issue of questionnaires and the sample used in the interviewing section were all done in Nigeria. Random sampling was conducted, and no preference was done on the rank of a sailor. Therefore, general data was collected in the study. None the less, the questionnaire was issued to a sample of seventy respondents which is sufficient to fulfil the conditions of the central limit theorem that gives the conditions to which a sample can represent the general population of a class of individuals, etc.

In addition to the issue of questionnaires, interviews were conducted to five interviewees to gain more information on their answers and to understand why they feel a certain way about the research study area (Bart Nnaji, 2005). Only five people were used in this method of data collection as it is time-consuming and it requires the researcher to interview only one interviewee at a time. Since sailors are busy people, there were a limited number of interviewees the researcher could get.

2.7.6 Data Analysis

Primary data collected by the questionnaires was analyzed by Excel to give more information on the open-ended questions. The researcher then went ahead to conduct descriptive statistical analysis and regression in data analysis (Bart Nnaji, 2005). Concerning answers were given by interviewees during the interview session; they were of relevance in explaining the findings of the study being conducted. The results of the study were presented in the form of tables and graphs.

2.7.7 Ethical Consideration

To conduct this study without affecting any of the respondent’s work life of even social life, the research was done on research ethics. The researcher obtained permission from the managers involved in the department as they were made aware of the reason of the study as well as the methods used to collect data and where the data will be used. In addition to this, the respondents to the questionnaires were sawed the signed copy of the responsible manager giving them go ahead to participate in the study to make them feel at ease. Anonymity was key to make sure that a respondent’s questionnaire could not be traced back to him/her after it has been given to the researcher. Finally, the researcher informed the respondents their rights to withdraw from the study anytime if they suddenly felt uncomfortable with the study.

2.7.8 CONCLUSION

Chapter 2 elaborates on the reviews of past researchers with regards to the effectiveness of Nigerian maritime training systems by highlighting the standards that make up an effective training system. Afterward, a history of the NIMASA is reviewed, and an account is given as to why and when it was enacted. After that, the principles and mandate of NIMASA are outlaid to make it possible for the researcher to compare and contrast the effectiveness of the NIMASA on the outlines of the international maritime organization (IMO).  Then finally, a review of the Cabotage Act is done so that a review can be done as to whether NIMASA is adhering to its mandate of the Cabotage Act.

To analyze the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system, an analysis was done to show the perception of seafarers on the government as represented by NIMASA, which enforces the Cabotage Act and therefore represents the Nigerian government. Therefore, NIMASA was used as a proxy of the Nigerian government in this research. Both questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from the seventy respondents used in the study.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3 

DATA ANALYSIS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Chapter 3 of this research focuses analysis of the data collected in the methodology section of chapter 2. Data collected from the field is analyzed both in a descriptive way and an inferential way to bring about the relationship between the variables being tested in this research.

3.2 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

3.2.1 Age

The sample used in the data collection to represent the population consisted of people from all age groups except the younger generation that is below 20 years old as the marine industry requires an individual to have considerable experience before being held responsible for anything. None the less, the age group between 20-30 years old composed of about 31% of the total sample. The age group between 30-40 years old composed of 45% of the total sample used. The age group of people between 40-50 years old composed of 15% of the total sample used and the age group that is above 50 years old composed of only 7% of the total sample used in the study.

 age frequency percent cumulative percent
20-30 22 31.42857143 31.428
30-40 32 45.71428571 77.14
40-50 11 15.71428571 92.85
>50 5 7.142857143 100
total 70 100

 

 

Frequency

Age

3.2.2 Gender

The researcher tried as much as possible to conduct an evenly distributed research by using both males and females. The percentage of males was about 49% while the total number of females used was 51%. This removed any bias that would have been a source of data discrepancy.

gender frequency percentage cumulative percentage
males 34 48.57142857 48.57142857
females 36 51.42857143 100
Total 70 100

 

 

3.2.3 Impact of Development of the educational sector

Development of education frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 6 8.571428571 8.571428571
disagree 5 7.142857143 15.71428571
neutral 16 22.85714286 38.57142857
agree 13 18.57142857 57.14285714
strongly agree 30 42.85714286 100
70 100

On analysis of development, the data indicated that only 8% of the respondents strongly disagree that the government has an impact on development, only 7% of the respondents disagree that the government has an impact on development. 22% of the sample was neutral on the impact of the government on development. 18% of the total sample agreed with the notion that the NIMASA has an impact on development and about 42% of the sample population strongly agreed that the NIMASA has an impact on development.

Below is a bar chart showing the comparison of the respondents’ views on NIMASA on development.

Frequency

Impact on education

3.2.4 Impact of NIMASA on the educational sector

Government policies frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 6 8.571428571 8.571428571
disagree 5 7.142857143 15.71428571
neutral 16 22.85714286 38.57142857
agree 16 22.85714286 61.42857143
strongly agree 27 38.57142857 100
Total 70  100

 

When the respondents were asked whether NIMASA has an impact on education, only 8% of them strongly disagreed with this notion while 7% of the respondents used in the sample disagreed with that notion. 22% of the respondents were neutral with this notion, and also 22% of the sample used also agreed with this notion. However, a whopping 38% of the sample strongly agreed with the notion that NIMASA has an impact on education.

Frequency

Impact of educational sector

3.2.5 Impact of modernization

Modernization frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 0 0 0
disagree 8 11.42857143 11.42857143
neutral 18 25.71428571 37.14285714
agree 5 7.142857143 44.28571429
strongly agree 39 55.71428571 100
Total 70 100

 

From the study conducted, it was realized that none of the respondents strongly disagreed with the fact that the government has a great impact on modernization. However, only 11% of the sample population disagreed with the fact that the government has had a great impact on modernization. 25% of the sample population were neutral on the government’s impact on modernization, and 7% of the sample population agreed with the notion that modernization is greatly impacted by the government. None the less, 55% of the sample population strongly agreed with the notion that the government has greatly impacted modernization. Below is a bar chart indicating the frequency of respondents and their views on modernization

Frequency

Impact on modernization

3.2.6 Lack of upgrading systems in the marine industry

Unadapting new programs frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 0 0 0
disagree 11 15.71428571 15.71428571
neutral 11 15.71428571 31.42857143
agree 13 18.57142857 50
strongly agree 35 50 100

 

With updating of technology being a factor that limits the NIMASA’s effectiveness, the different respondents had different views in this matter. None of the respondents strongly disagreed that updating of technologies has an impact on NIMASA’s effectiveness. Only 15% of the respondents disagreed with the notion that technology is a factor that limits NIMASA’s effectiveness, and also 15% of the population was neutral with technology being a factor that limits NIMASA;s effectiveness. Half of the respondents strongly agreed with the notion that technology limits NIMASA’s effectiveness.

Frequency

Updating new programs

3.2.7 Non balancing and non-matching of academic studies and on board training

Non-balancing of studies and on board training frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 0 0 0
disagree 3 4.285714286 4.285714286
neutral 11 15.71428571 20
agree 22 31.42857143 51.42857143
strongly agree 34 48.57142857 100
Total 70 100

 

Concerning the factors that limit the growth of the educational sector and looking into matching of academic studies and on board training as a factor, none of the respondents strongly disagreed that matching of academic studies and on board training is a factor for NIMASA’s non effectiveness. However, 4% of the respondents disagree with the notion that matching of academic studies and on board training limits NIMASA’s effectiveness in the shipping sector.15 percent of the respondents are neutral on the impact of matching of academic studies and on board training affects NIMASA’s effectiveness, and 31% of the respondents agree with the notion that matching of academic studies and on board training limits growth of the educational sector affects NIMASA’s none effectiveness. And 48% of the respondents strongly agreed with the notion that matching of academic studies and on board training affects NIMASA’s none effectiveness.

Frequency

Balancing academic studies and on board training

3.2.8 Lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people

Lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 0 0 0
disagree 11 15.71428571 15.71428571
neutral 11 15.71428571 31.42857143
agree 12 17.14285714 48.57142857
strongly agree 36 51.42857143 100
Total 70 100

Meeting the requirements of the people is one factor that affects NIMASA’s effectiveness. However, the impact of fulfilling the requirements of the people varies with different people, for example, none of the respondents completely disagreed with the notion that lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. Only 15% of the respondents disagree with the notion that lack fulfilling the requirements of the people limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. And also 15% of the respondents are neutral in this matter thus making about 31% of the total respondents not agreeing with the notion that fulfilling the requirements of the people limits the NIMASA’s effectiveness. 17% of the respondents agreed that lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people limits NIMASA’s effectiveness and 51% of the total sample size strongly agreed that lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people limits NIMASA’s effectiveness.

Frequency

Fulfilling the requirements of the people

3.2.9 Poor interaction among sailors

Poor cooperation with shipping industry frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 5 7.142857143 7.142857143
disagree 14 20 27.14285714
neutral 0 0 27.14285714
agree 29 41.42857143 68.57142857
strongly agree 22 31.42857143 100
Total 70 100

A factor that has an impact on NIMASA’s effectiveness is the poor interaction between sailors About 7% of the respondents in the study strongly disagreed on the notion that the poor interaction among sailors limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. About 20 % of the respondents disagreed with the notion of poor interaction among sailors is limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. Therefore, only 27% of the respondents disagreed with the notion of poor interaction among sailors machinery is limiting NIMASA’s effectiveness. However, 41% of the respondents agreed with this notion, and 31% of the respondents strongly agreed with the notion that poor interaction among sailors limits NIMASA’s effectiveness the bar chart below compare the frequencies of the respondents’.

Frequency                            cooperation with shipping industry to meet their requirements

3.2.10 poor adoption of training programs

Inadequate adoption of new education and training frequency percentage cumulative percent
strongly disagree 2 2.857142857 2.857142857
disagree 3 4.285714286 7.142857143
neutral 0 0 7.142857143
agree 36 51.42857143 58.57142857
strongly agree 29 41.42857143 100
Total 70 100

From the data collected during the data collection stage, only 2 % of the respondents strongly disagreed with the notion that poor adoption of training programs limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. About 4% of the respondents disagree with the notion of poor adoption of training programs limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. No one from the research done was neutral in this matter. However, 51% of the respondents strongly agreed on the notion that poor adoption of training programs limits NIMASA’s effectiveness. And about 41% of the respondents strongly agreed with this notion in that poor adoption of training programs NIMASA’s effectiveness.

 

Frequency

Adoption of new education and training technologies

3.3 REGRESSION TESTS

To determine the effectiveness of the Nigerian Maritime training system, it is important to analyze the data in such a way that would bring about the relationship between different parts of the study to be able to come up with viable conclusions about the research. The effectiveness of the Nigerian Maritime training systems can be analyzed by taking into account the different factors that have been in play and comparing their effectiveness over time to see whether they are improving or not. Therefore, in an attempt to discover the relationship between the different factors that affect the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training systems, which is a proxy of the government body. The independent variable in the study is the government’s impact on modernization in part (as in 3.4.1) and the other factors are the dependent variables. By regressing these values, one can bring out the relationship between the governments impact on development in the educational sector and the impact on the different factors that affect NIMASA’s effectiveness.

 

 

 

3.4 PORT MODERNIZATION

3.4.1 Relationship between modernization of technology and unadapting of programs

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.909573
R Square results 0.827323
Adjusted R Square results 0.740984
Standard Error results 7.823945
No. of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 586.5718 586.5718 9.582297 0.090427
Residual 2 122.4282 61.21411
Total 3 709
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept -3.40633 7.804885 -0.43644 0.705116 -36.988 30.17538 -36.988 30.17538
0 1.194647 0.385927 3.095528 0.090427 -0.46586 2.855156 -0.46586 2.855156

The multiple R correlation coefficients are 0.909573, which indicates that the correlation between the independent variable (modernization of technology) and the dependent variable (unadapting of programs) have a strong positive correlation. The coefficient of determination given by R-square denotes the percentage of the dependent variables that is explained by the independent variable. In this case, 82% of the independent variable explains the dependent variable. On the other hand, the standard error of the regression denoted as the standard error, gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the independent variable. In this case, the standard error is given by; 7.823945. Therefore it can be noted that the NIMASA is not fulfilling its objectives as indicated in the cabotage Act.

3.4.2 Relationship between development of the educational sector and lack of balancing professions

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.696573
R Square results 0.485214
Adjusted R Square results 0.227821
Standard Error results 13.50895
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 344.0165 344.0165 1.885107 0.303427
Residual 2 364.9835 182.4917
Total 3 709
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 3.59633 12.17251 0.295447 0.795502 -48.7777 55.9704 -48.7777 55.9704
0 0.794495 0.57866 1.372992 0.303427 -1.69528 3.284268 -1.69528 3.284268

 

From the regression analysis, it can be noted that the multiple R statistic values is 0.696 therefore, indicating that the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is fairly positive. In addition to this, the adjusted R square tends to explain the extent to which the dependent variables affect the independent variables. In this case, only 48.5% of the dependent variable affects the independent variable. None the less, the regression shows a standard error of 13.5% which gives an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the independent variable.

3.4.3 Relationship between development of the educational sector and lack of Lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.922312
R Square results 0.85066
Adjusted R Square results 0.77599
Standard Error results 7.276051
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 603.1182 603.1182 11.39229 0.077688
Residual 2 105.8818 52.94092
Total 3 709
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0%
Intercept -2.60394 6.979441 -0.37309 0.744915 -32.634 27.42617 -32.634
0 1.148796 0.340359 3.375246 0.077688 -0.31565 2.613244 -0.31565

In the relationship between the development of the educational sector and Meeting the requirements of the people, it can be noted that there is a strong correlation between the two variables in that the multiple R coefficients is 0.922312. This indicates that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variables. The R-square coefficient is 0.85066, thus 85%. Which indicates tends to explain the extent to which the dependent variables affect the independent variables. In this case, about 85% of the development of the educational sector affects the fulfilling the requirements of the people. The standard error in this regression analysis is 7.276051 that give an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the independent variable. Therefore, in general, it can be concluded that the development of the educational sector has a strong impact on the lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people

3.4.4 Relationship between development of the educational sector and poor interaction between sailors

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.039197
R Square results 0.001536
Adjusted R Square results -0.4977
Standard Error results 18.8137
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 1.089295 1.089295 0.003077 0.960803
Residual 2 707.9107 353.9554
Total 3 709
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0%
Intercept 18.28671 17.01763 1.074574 0.394998 -54.9343 91.50768 -54.9343
5 -0.04841 0.872699 -0.05548 0.960803 -3.80333 3.706508 -3.80333

 

From the regression analysis, it can be noted that the multiple R coefficient is 0.039197 indicating that, although the two variables have a positive correlation, the two variables have a weak relationship with each other. On the other hand, it can be noted that the R-square coefficient is 0% indicating that the government has no impact on the poor interaction between sailors None the less, the regression analysis gives a standard error of 18.813 that gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the independent variable. In this study, the development of the educational sector is a proxy of the government effectiveness by the Nigerian maritime training systems. Therefore, it can be interpreted that the government has little to no power to control over the poor interaction between sailors

 

3.4.5 Relationship between development of the educational sector and poor adoption of training programs.

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.173072189
R Square results 0.029953983
Adjusted R Square results -0.45506903
Standard Error results 18.54403713
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 21.23737 21.23737 0.061758 0.826928
Residual 2 687.7626 343.8813
Total 3 709
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0%
Intercept 15.01010101 13.65122 1.099543 0.386199 -43.7264 73.74657 -43.7264
2 0.146464646 0.589368 0.248511 0.826928 -2.38938 2.682311 -2.38938

 

From the regression analysis, by using the government impact on modernization as a proxy for the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training systems, the multiple R coefficient is 0.173072189. The slightly positive multiple R coefficient informs us that the two variables have a positive but weak relationship. On the other hand, the R-square coefficient of 2.9% indicates that only 2.9% of the development of the educational sector affects the poor adoption of training programs. Also, it can be noted that the standard error of the analysis of the dependent and independent variables is 18.544. Which also gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the independent variable.

  1. Educational Policies

3.5.1 Educational policies and unadapting of programs

When these two variables are regressed, there seems to be a positive relationship between educational policies and unadapting of programs, in the sense that the multiple R value is 0.837096, indicating that there is a strong and positive correlation. The R-square coefficient indicates that 70% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable. Therefore, more than half of the results arrived at by the regression analysis are explained. The standard error coefficient is 6.017614 which give an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable.

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.837096
R Square results 0.70073
Adjusted R Square results 0.551095
Standard Error results 6.017614
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 169.5766 169.5766 4.682927 0.162904
Residual 2 72.42336 36.21168
Total 3 242
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0%
Intercept 4.759124 6.002955 0.792797 0.511004 -21.0695 30.58775 -21.0695
0 0.642336 0.296827 2.164007 0.162904 -0.63481 1.919479 -0.63481

 

3.5.2 Impact of educational policies on non-balancing of professions

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R 0.938963
R Square 0.881651
Adjusted R Square 0.822477
Standard Error 3.784202
Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 213.3596 213.3596 14.89922 0.061037
Residual 2 28.64037 14.32018
Total 3 242
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0%
Intercept 5.050459 3.40983 1.481147 0.27674 -9.62085 19.72177 -9.62085
0 0.625688 0.162097 3.859951 0.061037 -0.07176 1.323137 -0.07176

From the results of regression analysis, it can be noted that there is a strong and positive relationship between educational policies and non balancing of professions since the coefficient, as indicated by multiple R 0.938963 is near +1. On the other hand, the R-square coefficient denotes an 88% relationship. This means that 88% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable. Therefore, 88% of poor matching skills and education is explained by educational policies. The standard error of this analysis is 3.784202, which gives an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable.

3.5.3 Impact of educational policies on lack of fulfilling the requirements of the people

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.826927
R Square results 0.683807
Adjusted R Square results 0.525711
Standard Error results 6.18541
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 165.4814 165.4814 4.32526 0.173073
Residual 2 76.5186 38.2593
Total 3 242
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 5.469365 5.93326 0.921814 0.453939 -20.0594 30.99812 -20.0594 30.99812
0 0.601751 0.289341 2.079726 0.173073 -0.64318 1.846686 -0.64318 1.846686

In this regression analysis, the multiple R coefficient is 0.826927, which indicates that the two variables have a strong and positive relationship. It, therefore, means that a educational policy has a strong and positive relationship with Lack of Fulfilling the requirements of the people. None the less, the coefficient of R square is 68% indicating that only 68% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable. None the less, the standard error of this analysis is 6.18541 which give an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the dependent variable.

3.5.4 Impact of educational policies on poor interaction among sailors

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.262401
R Square results 0.068854
Adjusted R Square results -0.39672
Standard Error results 10.61455
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 16.66272 16.66272 0.147891 0.737599
Residual 2 225.3373 112.6686
Total 3 242
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 12.92308 9.60122 1.345983 0.310583 -28.3876 54.23379 -28.3876 54.23379
5 0.189349 0.49237 0.384566 0.737599 -1.92915 2.307847 -1.92915 2.307847

The results of the regression analysis indicate that the multiple R squares has a coefficient of 0.262401 which indicates that the two variables have a positive but weak relationship with each other. Therefore, even if policies do affect the poor interaction among sailors, its impact is negligible. On the other hand, the coefficient of adjusted R square is about 6%, indicating that only 6% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable, which is quite a weak control over the dependent variables. Also, the standard error of this analysis gives a coefficient of 10.61455, which give an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable.

3.5.5 Impact of educational policies on poor interaction among sailors

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.584307
R Square 0.341414
Adjusted R Square results 0.012121
Standard Error results 8.926863
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 82.62222 82.62222 1.03681 0.415693
Residual 2 159.3778 79.68889
Total 3 242
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 11.08889 6.571525 1.687415 0.233576 -17.1861 39.36388 -17.1861 39.36388
2 0.288889 0.283714 1.018239 0.415693 -0.93184 1.509613 -0.93184 1.509613

The multiple R coefficient that comes about when these two variables are regressed is 0.584307 which indicates that the relationship between these two variables is fairly positive. Also, the adjusted R coefficient of this analysis shows that only about 34.1414% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable, which is a fairly weak percentage. Therefore, it can be denoted that the relationship between educational policies and poor adoption of training programs is positive but weak. Never the less, the standard error of this particular analysis is 8.926863 which give an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable.

3.6 Modernization

3.6.1 Modernization and unadapting of programs

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.901538
R Square results 0.812771
Adjusted R Square results 0.719157
Standard Error results 5.524332
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 264.9635 264.9635 8.682133 0.098462
Residual 2 61.0365 30.51825
Total 3 326
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 1.948905 5.510875 0.353647 0.757404 -21.7625 25.66029 -21.7625 25.66029
0 0.80292 0.272495 2.946546 0.098462 -0.36953 1.975372 -0.36953 1.975372

From the regression analysis of these particular variables, the coefficient of the multiple R is 0.901538, which indicates that the two variables, in spite of having a positive relationship, the relationship they have is also strong. The two variables give an R-square coefficient of about 81% indicating that 81% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable, which is a strong percentage. Therefore, modernization is greatly affected by adoption of new programs to cover new technologies applied in the shipping industry. The standard error is 5.524332 which give an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable.

 

3.6.2 Modernization and non-balancing of professions

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.894405
R Square results 0.799961
Adjusted R Square results 0.699941
Standard Error results 5.710203
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 260.7872 260.7872 7.99803 0.105595
Residual 2 65.21284 32.60642
Total 3 326
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 3.894495 5.145291 0.756905 0.528122 -18.2439 26.0329 -18.2439 26.0329
0 0.691743 0.244598 2.828079 0.105595 -0.36068 1.744164 -0.36068 1.744164

Modernization of technology has a strong and positive relationship with non balancing of professions in that it has a value of 0.894405. On the other hand, the coefficient of R square denotes a 79.99% in that, 79.99% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable, which is a strong percentage. Apart from this, the standard error of this particular study is 5.710203, which gives an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable. Therefore, it can be noted that non balancing of professions has limited the growth of modernization.

 

 

 

3.6.3 Modernization and meeting the requirements of the people

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.899006
R Square results 0.808212
Adjusted R Square results 0.712318
Standard Error results 5.591197
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 263.477 263.477 8.428166 0.100994
Residual 2 62.52298 31.26149
Total 3 326
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 2.712254 5.363271 0.505709 0.66329 -20.364 25.78855 -20.364 25.78855
0 0.7593 0.261545 2.90313 0.100994 -0.36604 1.884638 -0.36604 1.884638

When modernization was regressed against meeting the requirements of the people, it was realized that there is a strong and positive relationship between meeting the requirements of the people and modernization as indicated by the multiple R coefficient of 0.899006. None the less, this particular regression analysis gives an R-square coefficient of 80.8212% which indicates that 80.8212% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable, which is a strong percentage. Furthermore, the standard error of regressing these two variables is 5.591197 which give an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable.

3.6.4 Modernization and poor interaction among sailors

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.17213
R Square results 0.029629
Adjusted R Square results -0.45556
Standard Error results 12.57659
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 9.658956 9.658956 0.061067 0.82787
Residual 2 316.341 158.1705
Total 3 326
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 13.65734 11.37595 1.200545 0.352833 -35.2894 62.60411 -35.2894 62.60411
5 0.144164 0.583382 0.247117 0.82787 -2.36593 2.654254 -2.36593 2.654254

When modernization, was regressed against the inadequacy of cargo equipment and machinery, it was concluded that the two variables have a positive but weak relationship with each other as indicated by the multiple R coefficient of 0.17213. The R-square coefficient is 2.9629% indicating that the relationship between the two variables is quite weak. It could be described that only 2.9629% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable, which is a weak percentage. None the less, the standard error of this particular regression analysis is 12.57659 which give an estimated figure on the variations that are observed by the dependent variable poor cooperation with shipping industry to meet their requirement

3.6.5 Modernization and poor adoption of training programs

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 0.466465
R Square results 0.21759
Adjusted R Square results -0.17361
Standard Error results 11.29304
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 1 70.93434 70.93434 0.556205 0.533535
Residual 2 255.0657 127.5328
Total 3 326
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 11.44949 8.313392 1.377235 0.302322 -24.3201 47.21913 -24.3201 47.21913
2 0.267677 0.358916 0.745791 0.533535 -1.27662 1.81197 -1.27662 1.81197

When modernization was regressed against inadequate adoption of  new education and training technologies, it was discovered that the two variables have a positive but fair relationship of 0.466465. None the less, the R-square coefficient is 21.759% indicating that the two variables have a weak relationship. Specifically, this coefficient tells the researcher that only 21.759% of the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable, which is a weak percentage. Finally, the standard error of this regression analysis is 11.29304, which gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the dependent variable.

 

3.7 General Analysis of Factors

3.7.1 Analysis of development of the educational sector and the factors that limit the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system

In this part, the researcher analyzed how all the factors that limit the growth of the Nigerian maritime training systems sector play a part in development. This was done by regressing all the factors and considering new port development as the independent variable and all the factors that limit port development as the dependent variables. Below is the information that was generated after regressing the variables;

Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 1
R Square results 1
Adjusted R Square results 65535
Standard Error results 0
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 5 326 65.2 #NUM! #NUM!
Residual 0 0 65535
Total 5 326
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 9.107685 0 65535 #NUM! 9.107685 9.107685 9.107685 9.107685
0 0 0 65535 #NUM! 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 65535 #NUM! 0 0 0 0
0 0.626574 0 65535 #NUM! 0.626574 0.626574 0.626574 0.626574
5 -0.92355 0 65535 #NUM! -0.92355 -0.92355 -0.92355 -0.92355
2 0.643233 0 65535 #NUM! 0.643233 0.643233 0.643233 0.643233

The multiple R-squares has a coefficient of 1, indicating that all the factors that limit development of the educational sector has a very strong and directly related to the level of development in the port sector. The R-square coefficient has a value of 1, therefore, indicating that 100% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable. None the less, the standard error of the regression analysis is 0, which gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the dependent variable.

3.7.2 Analysis of educational policies and the factors that limit the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 1
R Square 1
Adjusted R Square results 65535
Standard Error results 0
Number of Observations 4
ANOVA
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 5 242 48.4 #NUM! #NUM!
Residual 0 0 65535
Total 5 242
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 11.58473 0 65535 #NUM! 11.58473 11.58473 11.58473 11.58473
0 0 0 65535 #NUM! 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 65535 #NUM! 0 0 0 0
0 0.401388 0 65535 #NUM! 0.401388 0.401388 0.401388 0.401388
5 -0.94675 0 65535 #NUM! -0.94675 -0.94675 -0.94675 -0.94675
2 0.751512 0 65535 #NUM! 0.751512 0.751512 0.751512 0.751512

 

The multiple R-squares has a coefficient of 1, indicating that all the factors that limit development of the educational sector have a very strong and directly related to the government policies made in the port sector. The R-square coefficient has a value of 1, therefore, indicating that 100% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable. None the less, the standard error of the regression analysis is 0, which gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the dependent variable.

3.7.2 Analysis of modernization and the factors that limit the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training system

SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R results 1
R Square results 1
Adjusted R Square results 65535
Standard Error results 0
Number of Observation 4
  df SS MS F Significance F
Regression 5 709 141.8 #NUM! #NUM!
Residual 0 0 65535
Total 5 709
  Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0%
Intercept 4.161924 0 65535 #NUM! 4.161924 4.161924 4.161924 4.161924
0 0 0 65535 #NUM! 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 65535 #NUM! 0 0 0 0
0 1.258007 0 65535 #NUM! 1.258007 1.258007 1.258007 1.258007
5 -0.76073 0 65535 #NUM! -0.76073 -0.76073 -0.76073 -0.76073
2 0.216758 0 65535 #NUM! 0.216758 0.216758 0.216758 0.216758

 

The multiple R-square has a coefficient of 1, indicating that all the factors that limit port development have a very strong and directly related to modernization in the port sector. The R-square coefficient has a value of 1, therefore, indicating that 100% of the dependent variables are explained by the independent variable. None the less, the standard error of the regression analysis is 0, which gives an estimated figure on the variations that is observed by the dependent variable.

3.8 SUMMARY

In statistics, it is important to analyze data to come up with meaningful conclusions about the data collected in the field. Since in the data collection part the researcher only used a sample of 70 seafarers, their views can only be used to represent the whole population if it is analyzed in a statistical way. By analyzing, one can determine the trend followed by the different variables and may also compare the values of different variables. Therefore, in this research, the first part of the analysis was done by comparing the general data collected in the field and by tallying the results to find out the frequency of the degree or extent of agreeing or disagreeing with a certain specific statement. To compare the results, the different extents of agreement and disagreement were done in two ways. The first part was done by comparing them in a percentage form which makes it easy for one to compare the values with each other. The second part of the analysis was more of a presentation whereby the data was represented in either a bar chart or a pie chart. The pie chart was used to compare the number of males and females who participated in the study. While the bar charts were used to compare the extent of agreement or disagreement of a statement. By presenting data in this format, it becomes more meaningful in that one can grasp what is being talked about in a glance.

The second part of the analysis gives more information about the data that could not have been perceived at a glance even when the data is presented. In addition to this, the second part of data analysis gives specific information about the data in terms of the exact percentage of an effect of one variable with respect to another variable. It also gives the extent or rather the strength of relationship between the two variables that are being analyzed to show what is relevant in the study. Other than this, the regression formula gives the standard error of the overall analysis to show the extent of variation between the variables.

Other than this, regression analysis gives more information that would give more information if the relationship between the variables was represented in a graph. An example of such information is the intercept, which gives the y-intercept on the ling graph is drawn when the two variables are represented graphically.  Other types of information given by the regression formulae include the coefficients, p-value, confidence intervals and the f- statistic.

None the less, the final part of the analysis includes the relationship between factors that represents the effectiveness of the maritime training system.

 

CHAPTER 4 – DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the findings that were arrived at in the data analysis section are reviewed, and their relevance stated about the study being conducted. Also, in this section what was noted down in the literature review section is checked against the conclusions that have been arrived at in the data analysis section to realize the validity of the secondary sources. And if they bring about the situation as it is on the ground (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009). In addition to this, the literature review section would give a clear understanding of the data that has been arrived at in the data analysis section, therefore, making it easier to explain a certain trait of data. This research was done by using a sample size of seventy people of which 48% were men, and 51% were women. Therefore, gender in this study as evenly distributed. None the less, the study also included people from different age brackets, for example, about 31% of the sample size was between 20 to 30 years old, about 45% of the sample size was between30 to 40 years old. About 15% of the sample size was between40 to 50 years old, and about 7% of the sample size were over 50 years old. The titles of the respondent were not taken into account while conducting this study and also, their individual education level was not relevant (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009). In this discussion and analysis section, the three major things considered to represent the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime training systems are the government’s impact on development. In some cases, the government was used as a proxy to represent the Nigerian maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA), which is the implementing and enforcing body of the government in the marine industry.

4.2 Modernization as a factor of effectiveness

In the shipping industry, modernization is an important factor for the progress of the maritime industry. This is because ships are highly technological vessels that need to be at the forefront of technology. Therefore, as see in the analysis section, modernization has a positive impact on the lack of growth. Meaning that the only reason as to why the marine industry is performing poorly, it because the government (NIMASA) is not effective (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009). None the less, it becomes apparent that the ineffectiveness of the government is not entirely the government’s fault. For example, in Nigeria, there is the lack of infrastructural facilities that make it more economical to acquire a ship from abroad that building the same ship in Nigeria. This touches on the poor hinterland connectivity as a limiting factor (Bart Nnaji, 2005). Therefore, since cost is a major issue that needs to be looked into when taking an investment, it becomes apparent that building a similar ship in Nigeria would be much more costly than building the same ship abroad, hence the inadequate cargo handling equipment and machinery. Therefore, this change in cost limits the marine industry from being modernized as modernization would be costly.

In addition to this, it was observed that if the Cabotage Act were restricted, then the cabotage shipping market opportunity would be captivated (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009).  None the less, Nigeria has been losing a lot of revenue to ship owners, for example, Nigeria loses about $4 million annually to foreign ship owners. This is largely due to lack of indigenous or rather local capacity in both the coastal and inland maritime transportation.

It has been observed that most of the Nigerian marine industry is mostly owned by foreigners, this is because foreigners are modernized and can cater for the repairs and maintenance of their ships (Maritime Academy of Nigeria (MAN, 2009). Therefore, it follows that the coastal and inland shipping industry is also largely owned by the foreigners. This brings about the stagnation of the GDP that comes from water transport has been at a constant rate of 0.01 since 2001 to 2005.

4.2 Educational policies as a factor of effectiveness

Educational policies were used to represent the enforcement of government policies by the Nigerian maritime administration and safety agency. From the data analysis part, it was clear that the government policies had a strong impact on three factors, these are; unadapting of programs, non-balancing and non-matching academic studies, and lack of Fulfilling the requirements of the people (Haralambides, H.E, 1996). Since these factors are considered to be the limiting factors that affect development, it was concluded that the government’s policies were either ineffective or were not enforced by the responsible body, i.e. NIMASA.

For example, in 2009, the agency, in an attempt to cover costs, it decided to cover 40% of the nautical education which would be used for funding for jetty or boat projects. In addition to this, the students of maritime institutions were responsible for covering the remaining 60% of the costs of nautical education to the same students. This policy aimed at increasing the number of students undertaking the nautical courses by making it cheaper for them to pay their fees (Haralambides, H.E, 1996). In a normal market, this action would have led to an increase in the number of students willing to take nautical courses. None the less, this action has not yet achieved its full objective as seen by the analysis of the results, which leads to misappropriation of funds as the issue limiting the effectiveness of government’s policies in Nigeria.

Regarding policies, experts state that the available legal framework to drive the regime of the marine industry as conceptualized in the Cabotage Act is enough to encourage Nigerian participation in the shipping industry to Nigerians. Therefore, the only source of failure in the marine industry can only be pointed out to the people who are running the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency, who fail to implement and enforce the cabotage to the latter (Haralambides, H.E, 1996). This instance traces back to ownership by the government as a factor that limits the growth of the ports sector even if the impact is felt indirectly by the people managing the Nigerian maritime training and safety agency.

As a matter of fact, it is stated that the indigenous ship owners are not capable of enjoying the full benefits that come with investing in the shipping industry mostly due to the poor implementation of the Cabotage Act by the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency. The poor implementation of the Cabotage Act leads to lack of both direct and indirect jobs in the shipping industry (Haralambides, H.E, 1996). The poor implementation and poor enforcement of the Cabotage Act have a direct impact on all the factors that limit the growth of the ort sector. For example, it has a direct impact on, port traffic, poor technology, and ownership by the government, etc.

From this, we conclude that it is not the policies made by the Cabotage Act that is ineffective. However, it is the people in charge of managing the enacting and enforcing body (Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency) that are not performing their duties as required.

4.3 Development of the educational sector

Port development as seen in the analysis section, seems to have a strong impact on most of the factors affecting the growth (Igbokwe, M, 2006). The sector makes it clear that there is an issue with the development role that is being undertaken by the government and as enforced by the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency (Haralambides, H.E, 1996).  For example, it has been noted that the agency has provided 40% of funds to nautical education and training of the students. However, it has been noticed that there is a shortage of Nigerian trained sailors in the country. This is because the agency, even though it has put an incentive to support training of the Nigerian people. It still spends large amounts of cash on training Nigerians abroad to countries like; India, Scotland and Egypt (Haralambides, H.E, 1996). This is because MAN lacks the ability to provide complete training. The lack of complete training, in turn, hinders development in the Nigerian maritime training systems in that they still support training in other countries instead of developing their maritime training systems to train upcoming sailors locally (Igbokwe, M, 2006).

For development to take place, the programs that have been put in place to drive development must be performance drives. However, it has been noted that since the commencement of the Nigerian maritime training and safety agency, it has been noted that there has been a misappropriation of funds. Furthermore, it is clear that NIMASA has not demonstrated any seriousness in the disbursement and management of funds that the agency is entrusted with, i.e. $40 million (Haralambides, H.E, 1996). This brings into focus the impact of growth by the limiting factor of government ownership. As a result, it would be true to say that the Nigerian Maritime administrative and safety agency has been diverting the funds allocated to them for political purposes (Igbokwe, M, 2006).

None the less, regarding development, the blame does not only lie on NIMASA but also lies to the general Nigerian population. For example, the few opportunities that have been made available, both coastal and inland, due to the slight enactment of the Cabotage Act are not being seized by the Nigerian population (Igbokwe, M, 2006). The availability of the Nigerian people, therefore, hinders development in the marine sector. This can be explained by the poor port traffic factor.

Development, therefore, as a way to measure the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency, affects the growth of the marine industry from two avenues. The first avenue is the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency itself while the second avenue is the Nigerian population in that they are not willing to take up the opportunities that are brought into the market by the enactment of the Cabotage Act (Igbokwe, M, 2006).

4.4 SUMMARY

In the discussion and analysis section, it was discovered that there is a strong relationship between the factors that limit port growth and the different ways in which the government shows the effectiveness of the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency. As a matter of fact, when all the five factors were regressed against each one of the aspects of government that show effectiveness, there seemed to be a strong and positive relationship between them. The three aspects of government are development, policies, and modernization. These aspects indicate that the issues mainly faced by the Nigerian maritime industry are brought about by the personnel in the agency who fail to enact the Cabotage Act. Instead, they embezzle the funds accumulated by the agency either for political uses or personal uses. None the less, the Nigerian people also slightly contribute to the lack of growth in the Nigerian shipping industry in that most youth are not willing to participate and take advantage that is made available by the enactment of the Cabotage Act. For example, the 40% of funds contributed to cater for nautical education and the students only allowed to cater for 60% of the educational funds.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5

5.1 CONCLUSION

From the literature review section, it was discovered that the Cabotage Act, through the formulation of the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency has the potential to transform the Nigerian shipping industry. This can be seen by the way the responsibilities of the Agency which indicate a clear and effective plan to make the shipping industry a major industry in Nigeria. By comparing the Nigerian maritime administrative and training agency with the worldwide standards for formulating an effective maritime training system, the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency fulfills most if not all the aspects. By crosschecking the implementing and enforcement areas of the Cabotage Act through NIMASA and comparing it with the setup standards of an effective maritime training system, one would tell that the Nigerian shipping industry would be one of the leading industries in the region; however, this is not the case.

It was, therefore, important to determine the cause of discrepancy as to why the Nigerian maritime training system is not improving or rather performing as expected.  A study was carried out by issuing questionnaires and conducting a few interviews. The data was analyzed by the regression formulae to show the extent of control of one factor to another and by showing if two or more variables have a positive effect on each other or a negative effect on each other. It was discovered that all the variables being tested had a positive effect on each other even though they had different levels of effect to each other.

After a thorough analysis of the facts brought about by the regression analysis, it was discovered that it is not the Cabotage Act that is incapable of transforming the shipping industry in Nigeria but the people enforcing the aspects of the Cabotage Act through the Nigerian maritime administrative and safety agency lack integrity to carry out their responsibilities. In fact, studies have shown that the personnel in charge of NIMASA have been accused of embezzling NIMASA’s funds for political and personal uses hence making it impossible for the Cabotage Act to be implemented and enforced.

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QUESTIONNAIRE

  1. GENDER
Male
Female

 

  1. Age
20-30
30-40
40-50
More than 50

Please indicate to what degree or extent you agree or disagree by choosing an appropriate number.

  1. NIMASA has brought development in the educational sector
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

 

  1. NIMASA has educational policies that encourage seafarers to undergo training
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

 

 

The following are facts that drag back the Nigerian maritime training system. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree.

 

5 New programs to cover new technologies applies in the shipping industry
6 Balancing requirements
7 Fulfilling the requirements of the people
8 Cooperation with shipping industry to meet their requirements
9 Adoption of new education and trainingtechnologies

 

 

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