ETHC445 final exam 2017
This exam covers all 14 TCO’s.
For each of the following multiple choice questions, please select the Philosophy (and/or Philosopher) which best goes with each description below.
Question 1.1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be always prohibited reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5)
Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean
Kant’s Categorical Imperative in the 1st Formulation)
Hobbes’ concept of the State of Nature
Thomas Aquinas’ concept of Natural Law
Bentham’s principle of pleasure and pain
Question 2.2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of temperance? (Points : 5)
Exercising control over one’s own desires and inclinations
Keeping one’s temper under control
Minimizing the impact of one’s decisions
Seeking the good of others before one’s own
Overcoming one’s passions
Question 3.3. (TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is that of the double standard. Double standard consists of what? (Points : 5)
Discriminating in the application of ethical criteria based on our own preferences
Setting aside ethical criteria in special cases
Taking steps to avoid condemnation of others
Using one set of criteria for judging cases concerning ourselves and another for all others
Suspending judgment when concerned that the consequences would be too severe
Question 4.4. (TCO 2) Prescriptive language is commonly used in ethics for what reason? (Points : 5)
To indicate what is prohibited or impossible
To indicate that one choice is better than others
To show what actions are legal
To convey requirements and obligations
To indicate that there are really no choices available
Question 5.5. (TCOs 7, 8) Ethics that teaches us what we should do in our own self-interest is taught through which style of ethics? (Points : 5)
Rousseau’s social constructionism
Contemporary care-based ethics
Plato’s “Ring of Gyges” example
Question 6.6. (TCOs 2, 4, 9) “The right thing to do is to follow the rules that rational, self-interested people can agree to establish for their mutual benefit.” This
is a belief of what? (Points : 5)
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
Social Contract Theory
Question 7.7. (TCOs 3, 6) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns
voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include which of the following? (Points : 5)
Subpoena regulation offenders
Monitor situations of environmental concern
Sponsor new legislation on environmental issues
All of the above.
Question 8.8. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant said that the only thing “good without qualification” is what? (Points : 5)
The best interests of all concerned
Acts of mercy
The amount of happiness produced
A good will
Question 9.9. (TCOs 8, 9) Which ethical concept is organized and directed toward following the greatest happiness principle? (Points : 5)
Natural ethics and law
Justice and mercy
Rights and responsibilities
Virtue-ethics of excellence
Principle of utility
Question 10.10. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Syllogisms in formal deductive logic are called “valid” when: (Points : 5)
the correct form of the syllogism style is used.
the premise statements are true.
the syllogism is first determined to be “sound.”
the verbs are written in present tense.
the conclusion proceeds from the premises.
Question 11.11. (TCOs 1, 2) When choosing one course of action while working with a dilemma, the other courses of action are lost and become unavailable. This makes
ethical choices in dilemma situations particularly what? (Points : 5)
Question 12.12. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the role of conscience as Thomas Aquinas sees it? (Points : 5)
To teach ethical principles
To disclose and build religious faith
To enable rational thought about consequences
To align personal ethics with those of others
To guide actions through a view of right and wrong
Question 13.13. (TCOs 2, 8) The single criterion for making decisions in utilitarian ethics is what? (Points : 5)
The experience of pleasure
Accounting for unintended consequences
Fiduciary interests to be honored
The amount of happiness produced
The principle to be honored
Question 14.14. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The Social Contract theorist whose troubled childhood was most clearly reflected in his theories was who? (Points : 5)
Question 15.15. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant’s concern that people choose to observe universal laws as their duty is expressed through what actions? (Points : 5)
Question 16.16. (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Aristotle taught the value of developing personal habits through what method? (Points : 5)
Aspiring to greatness through leadership
Repetitive patterns of excellent behaviors
A moderate realism in living
Participation in the politics of one’s city
Studying the teaching of master teachers
Question 17.17. (TCOs 2, 8) Professional codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5)
Allow businesses to avoid training professional staffers
Enable transfer of valued employees across state lines
Enable contracting of temporary employees
Specify continuing education needs and requirements
Providing assurance of the professional qualifications of members
Question 18.18. (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle’s Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the
deficiency of it.
If the virtue is COURAGE and the deficiency is COWARDICE, what is the excess?
(Points : 5)
There is no excess
Question 19.19. (TCOs 8, 9) In personal or organizational conflict, what benefits accrue to all parties when a leader or consultant employees one of the ethical
conflict resolution models of Week 6? (Points : 5)
Objectives of what winning the conflict means get refined and better understood
Conflict management gets slowed down and settled.
Conflict can be handled in a sequential, step-by-step manner
Parties can be reconciled without solving the issues
Personal relationships can be separated from issues
Question 20.20. (TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posteriori describes knowledge developed
through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a postiori manner? (Points : 5)
Question 1. 1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics
statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly
present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that
personalized statement through brief applications and cases.
Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision.
Should citizens have an ethical obligation to serve their country when it is at war? Under what circumstances, if any, is it ethical for a person to refuse to serve?
A significant number of people believe war is always wrong, and that no circumstances justify one nation’s taking up arms against another. Is this view ethically
sound? How about realistically? Please state which side you agree with, and why. Explain and defend your position using your ethical position statement.
In answering, be sure to look at both sides of war: that is, a country defending itself against aggression and of a strong country coming to the aid of a weaker
country that has been attacked unjustly. Then, explain how your ethical philosophy affected how you answered this problem.
(Points : 30)
Question 2. 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an
ethical situation, what the “issues” are, and how an “ethical” person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy has helped you read a conclusion about
how to resolve or analyze this situation.
Employees’ worth to their employers may diminish before they are eligible for retirement. In such cases, the employer is faced with the dilemma of choosing between
retaining an old and trusted yet unproductive worker for 5 or 10 more years, or firing that worker and jeopardizing his or her retirement benefits.
1. Should an employer have an ethical obligation to keep such unproductive, but loyal employees? What if the employee had been a problem his or her entire career? Are
there certain circumstances where your answer to these questions would be different?
2. What is the duty of an unproductive employee to his or her employer? Is there an ethical obligation to retire when productivity begins to wane? If a person is
simply “coasting” for his or her last few years, is that person “unethical?” Be sure to explain your answer.
(Points : 30)
Question 3. 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel Ayn Rand would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please
explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40)
Question 4. 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) John and Marsha are both married to other people and the parents of several children, and they are having an adulterous affair. One
night, when they are meeting secretly, they witness a murder. They agree that they cannot risk reporting it without exposing their affair. The next day the body is
found and within a week a suspect is apprehended and charged with first-degree murder. When John and Marsha see his picture in the newspaper, they realize that he is
not the murderer. They meet again, discuss their dilemma, and decide that despite the new, dreadful development, they will not step forward as witnesses.
Tell what ethical philosophy the John and Marsha are using, if any.
Now, use your ethical philosophy statement to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as
the characters in the situation did, or differently.
The question surrounds the issue of coming clean about the murderer, not whether you would have engaged in the affair or not. (Thus, you cannot say, “I would never
have the affair” as your solution. Pretend you are an advisor to the two of them–not that you are the two of them. What would YOU tell them to do at this point?) Why?
(Points : 30)
Question 5. 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You are a new employee in an advertising company. Your client is a well known soup manufacturer who wants to feature in advertisements a
picture showing the solid ingredients in its soup. Unfortunately, your advertising group found that the solid ingredients sank to the bottom of the bowl and were
barely visible. All that could be seen was the broth. Your boss hits upon a solution–put marbles in the bottom of the bowl before pouring in the soup! You try it and
the vegetables sit nicely on the top, giving the appearance of thick soup. Your boss wants you to run with the project with this solution.
What will you do? Explain why you will do this and what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion.
(Points : 30)
Question 6. 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)