HEALTH AND SAFETY ON-BOARD OIL TANKERS

HEALTH AND SAFETY ON-BOARD OIL TANKERS

 

 

Submitted by

Students

 

 

 

 

 

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfilment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 March 2016

 

Abstract

Safety and health of onboard shipping vessel is a major factor in the shipping industry. However, lack of knowledge and training contribute to safety issues of onshore vessels. In the continuation of onshore vessel accidents and unsafe work conditions, therefore, this study aimed to analyze the health and safety of onboard oil tankers with a view to improve the situation based on primary findings. This study employed a quantitative methodology to evaluate the different variables through the use of questionnaires. The study employed quantitative analysis technique through the use of SPSS software to generate descriptive and statistical findings. On reflection, the study findings showed the importance of training, risk assessment and involvement of the various stakeholders in the industry. The environmental safety and proper vessel handling are also very important on oil tankers safety and health. Technology should also be used to improve measures towards handling any issues that arise in an effort safety and health. The limitations of the study on health and safety on-board oil tankers included constraints of time, location and finance.

Key Words: Health and Safety, On-Board Oil Tankers, Seafarer, Shipping

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

Abstract i

List of Tables. v

List of Figures. viii

CHAPTER 1    –     INTRODUCTION.. 10

1.1       INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER.. 10

1.2       BACKGROUND.. 10

1.3       RESEARCH JUSTIFICATION.. 12

1.4       RESEARCH AIM.. 12

1.5       RESEARCH OBJECTIVES.. 12

1.6       RESEARCH LIMITATIONS.. 13

1.7       STUDY OUTLINE.. 13

1.8       CHAPTER SUMMARY.. 14

CHAPTER 2    –     LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY.. 15

2.1       INTRODUCTION.. 15

2.2       LITERATURE REVIEW… 16

2.2.1        Seafarer Training On Safety of On-Board Vessels. 16

2.2.2        Oil Tankers and Their Potential Hazards. 18

2.2.3        Knowledge on On-Board Safety and Health.. 18

2.2.4        Risk Assessment on Hazards. 19

2.2.5        Environment safety and oil tankers. 20

2.2.6        Seafarer Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 21

2.3       METHODOLOGY.. 21

2.3.1        Research Design.. 21

2.3.2        Research Tools. 21

2.3.3        Data Analysis. 22

2.4       CHAPTER SUMMARY.. 22

CHAPTER 3    –     SAFETY TRAINING AND ITS IMPACT ON VESSEL SAFETY.. 23

3.1       INTRODUCTION.. 23

3.2       DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS.. 23

3.3       DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS.. 29

3.4       CHI-SQUARE TESTS.. 38

3.4.1        Test 1. 38

3.4.2        Test 2. 39

3.5       SUMMARY.. 40

CHAPTER 4    –     SAFETY AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN OIL TANKERS.. 41

4.1       INTRODUCTION.. 41

4.2       DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS.. 41

4.3       CHI-SQUARE TESTS.. 51

4.3.1        Test 1. 51

4.3.2        Test 2. 52

4.3.3        Test 3. 54

4.4       SUMMARY.. 55

CHAPTER 5    –     ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN ENSURING VESSEL SAFETY.. 56

5.1       INTRODUCTION.. 56

5.2       DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS.. 56

5.3       CHI-SQUARE TESTS.. 65

5.3.1        Test 1. 65

5.3.2        Test 2. 66

5.4       SUMMARY.. 68

CHAPTER 6    –     DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS.. 69

6.1       INTRODUCTION AND DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS.. 69

6.2       SAFETY TRAINING AND ITS IMPACT ON VESSEL SAFETY.. 69

6.3       SAFETY AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN OIL TANKERS.. 71

6.4       ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN ENSURING VESSEL SAFETY.. 72

6.5       SUMMARY.. 74

CHAPTER 7    –     CONCLUSION AND REFLECTION.. 75

REFERENCES.. 79

APPENDIX A      Survey Questionnaire. 88

7.1       Safety Training and its Impact on Vessel Safety. 89

 

 

 

List of Tables

Table 3.1: Age. 23

Table 3.2: Education Level 25

Table 3.3: Gender 26

Table 3.4: Work Designation.. 27

Table 3.5: Conversance with the Research Subject 28

Table 3.6: Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels. 29

Table 3.7: Environment safety depends on training offered to Seafarers. 30

Table 3.8: Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels. 31

Table 3.9: Management contribute fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety. 32

Table 3.10: Management offers information to employees on safety on-board onshore vessels  33

Table 3.11: Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels. 34

Table 3.12: There is enough training equipment for a seafarer 35

Table 3.13: There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels. 36

Table 3.14: Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore  37

Table 3.15: Training and Environment safety. 38

Table 3.16: Chi-Square Tests. 39

Table 3.17: Chi-Square Tests. 39

Table 3.18: Training and Technological changes in the shipping. 40

Table 4.1: Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires on-board a vessel 41

Table 4.2: All seafarers are aware of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause. 43

Table 4.3: Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel 44

Table 4.4: There is a range of health problems on-board oil tankers. 45

Table 4.5: Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety on-board oil tankers. 46

Table 4.6: Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers. 47

Table 4.7: Hazards are adequately prevented by risk assessment 48

Table 4.8: Workplace on-board vessels are frequently inspected. 49

Table 4.9: Hazard protection leads to safety and health on-board oil tankers. 50

Table 4.10: Measures on-board a vessel and seafarers awareness of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause. 51

Table 4.11: Chi-Square Tests. 52

Table 4.12: Chi-Square Tests. 52

Table 4.13: Measures on-board a vessel and likeliness of oil pillage to occur in oil tanker 53

Table 4.14: Measures on-board a vessel and health problems on-board oil tankers. 54

Table 4.15: Chi-Square Tests. 55

Table 5.1: The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels  56

Table 5.2: The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels  58

Table 5.3: The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties  59

Table 5.4: Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril 60

Table 5.5: The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved  61

Table 5.6: Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition   62

Table 5.7: Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important 63

Table 5.8: Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability  64

Table 5.9: Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and probable risks on marine vessels. 65

Table 5.10: Chi-Square Tests. 66

Table 5.11: Chi-Square Tests. 66

Table 5.12: Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and Crew ignoring adequate use of PPE in their duties. 67

 

List of Figures

Figure 3.1: Age. 24

Figure 3.2: Education Level 25

Figure 3.3: Gender 26

Figure 3.4: Work Designation.. 27

Figure 3.5: Conversance with the Research Subject 28

Figure 3.6: Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels. 29

Figure 3.7: Environment safety depends on training offered to Seafarers. 30

Figure 3.8: Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels. 31

Figure 3.9: Management contribute fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety. 32

Figure 3.10: Management offers information to employees on safety on-board onshore vessels  33

Figure 3.11: Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels. 34

Figure 3.12: There is enough training equipment for a seafarer 35

Figure 3.13: There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels. 36

Figure 3.14: Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore  37

Figure 4.1: Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires on-board a vessel 42

Figure 4.2: All seafarers are aware of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause. 43

Figure 4.3: Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel 44

Figure 4.4: There are a range of health problems on-board oil tankers. 45

Figure 4.5: Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety on-board oil tankers. 46

Figure 4.6: Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers. 47

Figure 4.7: Hazards are adequately prevented from risk assessment 48

Figure 4.8: Workplace on-board vessels are frequently inspected. 49

Figure 4.9: Hazard protection leads to safety and health on-board oil tankers. 50

Figure 5.1: The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels. 57

Figure 5.2: The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels  58

Figure 5.3: The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties  59

Figure 5.4: Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril 60

Figure 5.5: The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved  61

Figure 5.6: Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition   62

Figure 5.7: Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important 63

Figure 5.8: Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability  64

 

CHAPTER 1    –   INTRODUCTION

1.1         INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER

The introduction chapter entails a brief presentation of the study background, which entailed information that attracted this study in the shipping sector. The chapter further details a justification for the research as well as its importance to the shipping sector and its stakeholders. The chapter further presents the core aim and objectives of the study, and concludes with the limitation and outline of the research chapters.

1.2         BACKGROUND

Sea transport is one important element that enhances the world economy and globalization. According to UNCTAD Secretariat 2008 80% world merchandise for trade is transported by sea.  The trend continues as international shipping increase by 3.1% annually (Paschalis 2015). The world fleet continue escalating and UNCTAD Secretariat 2008 analysed it to stand at 1.12 billion DWT. As these trends continue to rise more issues persist and surface on-board within the shipping industry.  The issues range from vessel safety, the crew cargo, the environment, safety and health problems, hazards on board oil tankers and role of various stakeholders in safety maintenance on-board. Consequently, the shipping industry establishes measures to maintain conducive environment including training to seafarers and risk assessment.

Oil tankers pose among the great risk to onshore vessels.  Brien (2015) defines technological hazards as anything that can go wrong with the ships, or their equipment. They range from   structural problems, engine issues, and navigational equipment failures. Oil tankers thus pose technical hazards. Oil tankers explosions are most hazardous. Explosions can be caused by oxygen content of the tank (Paschalis 2015). Oil spillage and leakage are likely to cause a fire hazard and that can result to massive losses through accidents and pollution among other lesser accidents like slips and falls.  Proper attention by the various stakeholders is the most strategy to prevent against minor and major

The awareness of seafarers is the far most part significant factor in the safe and competent operation of ships. It impacts directly on onshore safety and in the fortification of the maritime environment. The IMO Convention on STCW Standards of Standards, Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers (STCW) is an all-inclusive set of worldwide regulations projected to make certain that the utmost standards of seafarer proficiency is globally maintained. Changes have been introduced due to technical developments within the industry that require competency by seafarers (Mackay andWright 2008). Training of seafarers is thus not only a necessity to maintain vessels, crew cargo and the environment but also for every emerging trend within the industry.

Safety is important while at any work whether on-board or off shore. Many operations on board prevent certain risks that either lead to health effects or environmental distortion. Onshore working vessels include powerful machinery, fast equipment, highly pressurised liquids and gases, volatile fuels, heavy cranes, high voltage and unpredictable natural phenomena this is according to Falck Safety Services Research on Basic Safety shipping UK (2014). Due to the nature of the equipment maintenance of safety precautions isn’t evitable among those measures wearing safety clothing and proper handling of equipment to combat any possible accidents.

Risk assessment is very important in an attempt to maintain safety and curb any possible risk that may pose a threat to a voyage. As the shipping industry achieves massive transportation over the years it is critical that risk assessment remains a major consideration in the industry. Risk assessment is important to evaluate and estimate the consequences of three possible hazards that may cause massive destruction to the ship vessel, environment and the seafarers working on-board. The hazards include weather hazards, geographic hazards and technological hazards (Brien, 2015).  To make any decision wide range of information need to be gathered frequency of occurrence of the hazards and their impact is also considered to ensure that the decisions made are very reliable. The ultimate aim is to prevent a risk, reduce the impact in case of occurrence (mostly for hazards as a result of Acts of God) or absorption of the risk (Rosness 2013). Whatever measure is taken it considered the very best alternative after intensive study and considering of other alternatives.

Transformation and emergence of new technologies resulting to new technological hazards, weather changes resulting to weather related hazards and geographical changes on sea resulting to geographical hazards call for changes on how maritime stakeholders handle challenges (Gold 2004). Training on safety, risk assessment by ensuring prior knowledge on various existing factors is an important gap that needs to be filled within the industry.

1.3         RESEARCH JUSTIFICATION

The existing conditions in the shipping industry call for more than has actually been put in place to address the robust challenges that come with the transformation that prevails in the industry. If proper measures are not put into place objective achievement within the industry may not be possible in the long-run. The underlying principle of the study is to find a way out towards health and safety on-board oil tankers. With the knowledge from the background and introduction this is paramount for a highly sustainable healthy industry into the future. The study is justified since training various stakeholders working onshore on their roles is important for safety of vessel, crew cargo and the environment. Knowledge on various safety and health problems arising on vessels is important to deduce ways to tackle arising problems. Risk assessment is therefore important to identify hazards and gain insight on different challenging issues in the industry

1.4         RESEARCH AIM

The aim of this study was to analyse contemporary issues about the health and safety on board tankers, to get more safety awareness on oil tankers.

1.5         RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The objective of these research entailed the following:

  1. To discuss the effectiveness of seafarer safety training and its impact on the safety of the vessel, crew cargo and the environment.
  2. To identify various safety and health problems arising on vessels and the way forward in tackling such problems.
  3. At reviewing the need for risk assessment in order to identify various hazards on board oil tankers.
  4. At identifying the role of safety officers, master, the crew, personnel on board and shipping companies in the safety of the vessel.

1.6         RESEARCH LIMITATIONS

The limitations of the study on health and safety on-board oil tankers include time, location and financial constraints. The investigator used data from a range of seafarer groups including Cadets, Junior Officers, senior officers and Ship Masters. The participants targeted worked under different companies hence it was a challenge getting high quality data since different companies work under different conditions. Data collected cannot be defined as accurate as questionnaire filling would be affected by various factors most importantly the participants willingness to give accurate information. Other constraints to the study included limited time for the research and finances to handle a larger scope for the research. The scope that the researcher could handle was 110 respondents from the various levels of officers. This is a limited scope considering the whole global shipping industry.

1.7         STUDY OUTLINE

The study on Health and safety on-board oil tankers it was divided into 5 chapters namely, introduction, literature review, methodology, Analysis on findings, Discussion and conclusion and recommendations. Chapter1gives an introduction to the research topic and provides a detailed background for the study aside from highlighting research objectives, aim, justification of the research and study outline and limitations. Chapter 2 provides the literature review and detailed literature findings on the research and the methodology used for the study. Chapter 3 included statistical analysis chapter 4provides a discussion on statistical analysis of the variables under study. Chapter 5 finally gives the conclusion recommendations on the study.

1.8         CHAPTER SUMMARY

The background of this research showed that knowledge and training is important to handle safety of onshore vessels. This is because oil tankers pose a threat onshore ability to handle them effectively and curtail against any possible danger is important. Also, the role of various stakeholders is important for onshore safety success. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the health and safety onboard oil tankers. However, there were limitations to the study including time, location and financial constraints. The study had six chapters including introduction, literature review, methodology, analysis on findings, discussion and conclusion and recommendations.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2    –   LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY

2.1         INTRODUCTION

This literature review intends to cover Health and safety onboard oil Tankers. Through various secondary material and available data on various research and findings the research intends to compile the information to aid in this research in this chapter. Major areas of consideration include available data on how the shipping industry attempts to maintain safety and health on board the ship considering vessel maintain like in this case an emphasis is on oil tankers. Due to technological changes training in the industry need to be considered. This literature review aims at gathering information on training on vessel handling. Lastly the chapter gathers pertaining to risk assessment and how the industry advocates for the approach towards safe and healthy environment onboard oil tankers and other vessels. The gathered information will therefore be instrumental in gathering data for the methodology of this research.

The methodology later in the chapter will consider using quantitative approach. It aims at covering the various issues deduced from the literature review. Questionnaires will be more useful in this to gain primary data for the study. Methodology is important for the research as it draws the basis against which the gap in the study is filled.

Statistics and studies show that effective management of workplace safety and health can substantially reduce employee fatalities, injuries, and illnesses (OSHA 2014).Further OSHA 2014 says that costs associated with them can also be reduced. As a result around the globe nations embrace regulations and guide lines in their workplace on (SHPs) as they handle their employees and working vessels at hand. This entails prevention of accidents, injuries and illness for sustainability of a working condition in the shipping industry. For effective workplace safety and health various essential are vital they include Management Commitment and Leadership, employee participation, hazard Identification, assessment and control, accident and incident investigation, training, program Evaluation, recordkeeping, procedures for Multi-Employer Workplaces (IMO 2002)

Oil tankers are important in the shipping industry they include both crude and product tankers. International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (ISGOTT) provide broad information on operating tankers safely. These guidelines are important for maritime shipping. Seafarers who work on tankers should have proper training according to national and international requirements International labour office Geneva (1997). Therefore officers hired should be equally competent. Health and safety on-board oil tankers through risk assessment and seafarer awareness on safety of vessels and handling oil tankers are inevitable.

2.2         LITERATURE REVIEW

2.2.1     Seafarer Training On Safety of On-Board Vessels

Preparing for any possible situation that is hazardous becomes a challenge when those involved have no idea on how to handle the situation. According to Ballesio and Diettrich (2002) business needs to guarantee that all representatives, both supervisory and nonsupervisory have the potential to handle any potential challenges. Employees presented to any work environment dangers must be prepared with extensive training on combating any probable danger and effective handling of the equipment (Radford 2013)

OSHA training on SHP is widely used to equip seafarers with ability to handle any possible adverse challenge. The strategies used by managers to train and equip their staff change gradually relying upon elements, for example, work environment estimate, the kind of operations being performed, working environment dangers and utmost the change of technological trends within the industry. According to Havold and Nesset (2007) a few managers may find it competent to educate their works from within; others contract contracting companies to educate their workers. A key to viable in preparing is coordinating security and wellbeing issues into every single authoritative activities. Wellbeing and wellbeing preparing is frequently best when joined into other preparing, for example, preparing on occupation execution prerequisites and occupation hones.

While preparing should be suitable to the security what’s more, wellbeing states of the working environment, there are crucial points that security and wellbeing preparing ought to cover: The nature of the risks to which the worker might be presented and how to remember them, what the business is doing to control these perils, protective measures that the representative needs to take after to counteract or minimize introduction to these perils, procedures to be followed in an emergency, the business’ wellbeing and wellbeing program, and the representative’s part in that program, incorporating chances to take an interest in it (OSHA 2014). For preparing to be powerful it should be given in a way that representatives can get it. This implies the business, in creating and giving preparing, needs to consider the instructive levels, proficiency and dialect abilities of the representatives (Lamvik 2004)

Preparing ought to likewise furnish representatives with a chance to make inquiries and get answers about wellbeing and wellbeing issues. Once a business has set up a SHP, representatives should be prepared. In any case, powerful SHPs don’t stop with beginning preparing of current workers and as new representatives are contracted (Wilsonand Cahoon 2008). Maybe, SHPs ought to incorporate proceeding with instruction on both a routine and as-required premise. Likewise according to Kristiansen (2005) preparing materials should be assessed to guarantee that they are effective giving workers data important to shield them from harm and ailment. OSHA (2014) argues that notwithstanding broad mindfulness preparing, it is vital that both supervisory and non-supervisory workers who are in charge of the SHP get adequate preparing to empower them to do their program obligations. Such preparing ought to in any event spread peril recognizable proof techniques, work investigation strategies, control usage and assessment, and critical thinking.

Ensuring that safety working practices are maintained at all times is important. Safety working conditions including importance of adherence to safe working practices, safety and protective devices available to protect against potential hazards aboard ship, while entering enclosed spaces precautions should be taken, adaptation with global measures with reference to accident prevention and occupational health. With the approach as the shipping industry adapts to technological changes safety and health is assured to those practicing onshore.

2.2.2     Oil Tankers and Their Potential Hazards

Oil tankers pose a high danger onshore. They pose risk that can cause massive damage especially in case of occurrence of a fire. According to ILO on accidents prevention on board ship at sea and in port (1997), for tankers effective operation and prevention of possible hazards various factors are taken into account. They include a well-structured on board safety policy supplemented by the suitable safety committee with selected tasks, smoking can cause adverse effects it is therefore proper that strict smoking and hot-work policies are developed, crews should understand nature of any cargo on-board and precautions necessary to handle any hazardous nature they might pose to the cargo and finally the need to understand any health hazard posed by the cargo. Oil tankers will generally be protected from any possible fire cause that may result to negative outcome (Paschalis 2015)

Training and prior knowledge on any probable risks that are likely to rise caused by oil tankers define the intensity with wish a hazard may occur or may fail to occur if knowledge and training are put into proper use.  STCW now enhances tanker training since it contains new comprehensive Competence Tables for training in oil, chemical and gas tanker operations, at both essential and higher levels (Falck services 2014)

2.2.3     Knowledge on On-Board Safety and Health

In the shipping industry employment, employers are called to be careful on their employees’ knowledge of on-board health. Employees should participate in launching, executing, and evaluating the SHP. Involvement of all stakeholders’ safety officers, master, the crew, personnel on board and shipping companies ensures safety of onshore vessels. According to Progoulaki (2006) Involvement of employees ensures that they have adequate insight and knowledge on handling every equipment or vessel while working on board.  Often each unit within an organization is required to issue a response in case of encounter with certain hazards (Theotokas, 2006). Therefore to successfully identify prevent and control any possible occurrence teamwork contribution is recommended.

Workers ought to be urged to take part in all parts of the SHP, from creating and wanting to actualizing and assessing the system.  Allison et.al  (2006) is of the opinion that one of the key parts of representative cooperation is building up a route for workers to make reports with this interaction with the system their knowledge on health and safety issues is diversified and their ideas are included in making decisions. Representatives shouldn’t hesitate to and be urged to report business related wounds, sicknesses and perils and also to make suggestions about proper approaches dangers. Brief reactions to such reports are a fundamental way that the shipping industry can demonstrate that worker data is wanted. Seafarer support can be individual and direct, for example, representative meetings or studies. At little work environments; for instance, workers inclusion might be expert by the business conversing with representatives over the span of a work environment walkthrough (USCG 2000). Different strategies for accomplishing this objective in working on-board incorporate building up security stewards, holding continuous wellbeing gatherings, and utilizing a worker proposal framework that define work guidelines for those on-board.

For safe and heath on-board oil tankers management should commit itself through proper leadership to ensure training on safety of vessels (O’Dea and Flin, 2001). Management has the obligation to ensure that training and safety of vessels is well integrated into the system. Further, it is important to note that there may rise unexpected scenarios or changes that may warrant attention to ensure safety and health onshore thus the need to always be on the lookout.

2.2.4     Risk Assessment on Hazards

Hazards classified into tree classes include the weather hazards that occur due to natural occurrences like hurricanes, squalls, typhoons that damage the cargo vessels. The other hazard is the geographic hazard occurring as a result of the seascape that may cause harm to vessels they include coral reefs, icebergs among others. The other hazard is the technological hazard caused byanything that might go wrong with the ship, or their equipment. It includes structural problems, engine issues, and navigational equipment failures (Brien 2015)

There are measures that can help overcome work hazards and they include frequent physically inspections to the workplace, reviewing available safety and health information, evaluating seriousness of identified hazard (Roberts and Marlow 2005). Risk assessment should be rating the most hazardous to the least hazardous. Hazard assessment and control needs to be a systematic process according to OSHA (2014) where the shipping company establish has procedures or practices to implement or support the essential component.

To identify any possible risks measures that management should consider include reassessing records of injuries and illnesses, reassessing other safety and health information.  According to Soma 2005, Sjostrom 2000 safety alerts from insurance companies, frequent checking on conditions of all equipment and all vessels would enhance maintenance of safety on equipment and prevent any potential hazards.  Controls measures are then put into place to ensure to prevent this risks such controls include engineering and work practice controls which entail changes to job and control exposure to hazards and administrative controls they reduce frequent exposure to risks by basically altering the way in which work is performed (Kristianson 2005). For a successful risk control four steps should be considered detection of dangers and identify those exposed to the risk, determination of the risk, decision to access if risk is acceptable and finally and finally action plans are prepared if necessary (IMO 2002)

2.2.5      Environment safety and oil tankers

An environment that is well catered for means that attaining safety and health within such an environment is possible. Thus a business must always consider the environment in conducting its operations and work towards preventing any operation that negatively affects the environment (Yabuki 2011). Regulatory compliance guidelines should be adhered to.  Avoiding spills from the vessels, emission that result to environmental pollution should remain a key priority. According to Group Health, Safety, Environment Security handbook (2012), environmental performance must be assessed within the specific company and ensuring that knowledge on how any practice affects the environment is clear. To ensure a safe environment planning should be used, design and risk assessment to avoid and reduce environmental risk.

2.2.6     Seafarer Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

The PPE is intended to protect seafarers against the risks associated with dangerous task. PPE protect individuals hence they are important to seafarers as they go on performing their duties whether large or small assignments. This equipment include head protection, hand protection, eye protection, ear protection, respiratory protection, safety footwear, safety harness and body protection (Falck Safety Services 2014). Consequently, hazards elimination where possible is attainable. The most important step is to ensure proper use of equipment for its effectiveness. PPE are used and recommended by international shipping organizations to ensure operators safety and they can be used as control measures against risks

2.3         METHODOLOGY

This section describes the approach and strategy that was taken to gather, process, and synthesize primary data. The chapter further describes the research design and tools that were adopted in this study.

2.3.1     Research Design

This study adopted quantitative design. Quantitative research quantifies the problem by generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into useable statistics (Wyse 2011). In quantitative design, attitudes, opinions, behaviours, and other defined variables are quantified and results generalized from what would have been rather a larger population. This method has well-structured data that can be statistically analysed hence very appropriate and efficient for our study. The research design finally will easily help us analyse the data hence a bridge between the existing gap and the research objective recommendations to fill it`

2.3.2     Research Tools

In this analysis primary data available from answered questionnaires is used. The researcher used questionnaires to gather data from a sample of 110 seafarer employees serving over the different ranks onshore. The research questionnaire was dispatch to the various participants who were requested to fill the information. Questionnaire filling was considers most effective primary data collection for the research due to time and financial constraints. Other secondary data was used to help analyse and understand the trends in the primary data.

2.3.3     Data Analysis

For analysis purpose statistical analytical technique was used .Opinions of employees on such issues like training, risk analysis, safety and health are presented on bar charts and pie charts. Through the data represented analysis and discussions are carried out. Data analysis for this study was used to aid in discussing the different variables, relating them to the study, discussing them and finally drawing recommendations on how to fill the existing gaps.

2.4         CHAPTER SUMMARY

The literature in this literature review showed that a safety and health onboard shipping vessel is a major factor in the shipping industry. The information gathered showed the importance of training, risk assessment and involvement of the various stakeholders in the industry. From the changes and trends occurring in the shipping industry it is necessary that current research are done to aid in helping the shipping industry identify gaps that are currently existing in the industry for safety and health and towards a healthy environment considering the technological, weather and geographical changes. Gaps in training, identifying potential hazards and involving various stakeholders working within the system exist. Consequently enough measures need to be embraced to assist in this.

This study employed a quantitative methodology to evaluate the different variables that are important to filling the existing gap. Quantitative methodology was considered by using questionnaires that will be analyzed and later statistical presented to draw analysis, discussions and conclusion for this research.

CHAPTER 3    –   SAFETY TRAINING AND ITS IMPACT ON VESSEL SAFETY

3.1         INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to present finding on descriptive statistical analysis and chi-square test on safety training and its impact on vessel safety. In addition, also highlighted under the current chapter are findings on demographic information analysis

3.2         DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Table 3.2 and Figure 3.2 indicate that 10.9% of the respondent were aged 18-24 years, 22.7% were aged 25-34 years, 30% were aged 35-44 years, 23.6% were 45-54 years and 12.7% were aged over 55 years.

Table 3.1: Age

Age
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 18 – 24 years 12 10.9 10.9 10.9
25 – 34 years 25 22.7 22.7 33.6
35 – 44 years 33 30.0 30.0 63.6
45 – 54 years 26 23.6 23.6 87.3
Over 55 years 14 12.7 12.7 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.1: Age

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3.2 and Figure 3.2 show that 1.8% of the respondents had O/A level of education, 6.4% had diploma, 46.4% had bachelor’s degree, 30% had master’s degree and 15.5% had doctorate degree.

Table 3.2: Education Level

Education Level
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid O/A – Level 2 1.8 1.8 1.8
Diploma 7 6.4 6.4 8.2
Bachelor’s degree 51 46.4 46.4 54.5
Master’s degree 33 30.0 30.0 84.5
Doctorate degree 17 15.5 15.5 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.2: Education Level

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3.3 and Table 3.3 on gender show that 81.8% of the respondents were male while female comprised only 18.2%.

Table 3.3: Gender

Gender
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Male 90 81.8 81.8 81.8
Female 20 18.2 18.2 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.3: Gender

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3.4 and Figure 3.4 below show that 27.3% of the respondents were senior managers, 34.5% were assistant managers, 6.4 were general managers, 19.1% were supervisors and 12.7% were non-managerial employees.

Table 3.4: Work Designation

Work Designation
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Senior Manager 30 27.3 27.3 27.3
Assistant Manager 38 34.5 34.5 61.8
General Manager 7 6.4 6.4 68.2
Supervisor 21 19.1 19.1 87.3
Non-managerial employee 14 12.7 12.7 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.4: Work Designation

 

 

 

 

 

From Table 3.5 below, 0.9% of the respondents strongly disagreed that they were familiar with the subject of study, 0.9% also disagreed, 1.8% neither agreed nor disagreed, 1.8% agreed and 94.5% strongly agreed.

Table 3.5: Conversance with the Research Subject

Do you regard yourself as being familiar with the subject of Health and Safety Onboard Oil Tankers?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 1 .9 .9 .9
Disagree 1 .9 .9 1.8
Neither agree nor disagree 2 1.8 1.8 3.6
Agree 2 1.8 1.8 5.5
Strongly Agree 104 94.5 94.5 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.5: Conversance with the Research Subject

 

 

 

3.3         DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Table 3.6 and Figure 3.6 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels.” Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels 57.3 % strongly agree, 20.9% agree, 11.8% are not certain and 10% disagree.

Table 3.6: Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels

Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Disagree 6 5.5 5.5 10.0
Neither agree nor disagree 13 11.8 11.8 21.8
Agree 23 20.9 20.9 42.7
Strongly Agree 63 57.3 57.3 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 3.6: Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels

 

 

 

 

Table 3.7 and Figure 3.7 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Environment safety depends on training offered to Seafarers.” Environmental t safety depends on training offered to seafarers 50.9 % strongly agree, 31.8% agree, 9.1 % is not certain and 8.1% disagree

Table 3.7: Environment safety depends on training offered to Seafarers

Environment safety depends on training  offered to Seafarers
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 4 3.6 3.6 3.6
Disagree 5 4.5 4.5 8.2
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 17.3
Agree 35 31.8 31.8 49.1
Strongly Agree 56 50.9 50.9 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.7: Environment safety depends on training offered to Seafarers

 

 

 

Table 3.8 and Figure 3.8 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels.”Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels 48.2% strongly agree, 29.1% agreed, 10% neither agreed nor disagreed, 7.3% disagreed and 5.5% strongly disagreed.

Table 3.8: Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels

Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 6 5.5 5.5 5.5
Disagree 8 7.3 7.3 12.7
Neither agree nor disagree 11 10.0 10.0 22.7
Agree 32 29.1 29.1 51.8
Strongly Agree 53 48.2 48.2 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.8: Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels

 

Table 3.9 and Figure 3.9 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Management contributes fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety.” From the table 6.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 10% neither agreed nor disagreed, 32.7% agreed and 41.8% strongly agreed.

Table 3.9: Management contribute fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety

Management contribute fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 7 6.4 6.4 6.4
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 15.5
Neither agree nor disagree 11 10.0 10.0 25.5
Agree 36 32.7 32.7 58.2
Strongly Agree 46 41.8 41.8 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.9: Management contribute fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety

 

 

Table 3.10 and Figure 3.10 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Management offers information to employees on safety on-board onshore vessels.” From the table 5.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 7.3% disagreed, 9.1% neither agreed nor disagreed, 30.9% agreed and 47.3% strongly agreed.

Table 3.10: Management offers information to employees on safety on-board onshore vessels

Management offers information to employees  on safety onboard  onshore  vessels
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 6 5.5 5.5 5.5
Disagree 8 7.3 7.3 12.7
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 21.8
Agree 34 30.9 30.9 52.7
Strongly Agree 52 47.3 47.3 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.10: Management offers information to employees on safety on-board onshore vessels

 

 

Table 3.11 and Figure 3.11 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels.” From the table 8.2% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 8.2% disagreed, 7.3% neither agreed nor disagreed, 19.1% agreed and 57.3% strongly agreed.

Table 3.11: Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels

Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 9 8.2 8.2 8.2
Disagree 9 8.2 8.2 16.4
Neither agree nor disagree 8 7.3 7.3 23.6
Agree 21 19.1 19.1 42.7
Strongly Agree 63 57.3 57.3 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.11: Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels

Table 3.12 and Figure 3.12 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “There is enough training equipment for a seafarer.” From the table 6.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 10% neither agreed nor disagreed, 32.7% agreed and 41.8% strongly agreed.

Table 3.12: There is enough training equipment for a seafarer

There is enough training equipment for a seafarer
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 7 6.4 6.4 6.4
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 15.5
Neither agree nor disagree 11 10.0 10.0 25.5
Agree 36 32.7 32.7 58.2
Strongly Agree 46 41.8 41.8 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.12: There is enough training equipment for a seafarer

 

 

Table 3.13 and Figure 3.13 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels.” From the table 4.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 8.2% disagreed, 7.3% neither agreed nor disagreed, 35.5% agreed and 44.5% strongly agreed.

Table 3.13: There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels

There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Disagree 9 8.2 8.2 12.7
Neither agree nor disagree 8 7.3 7.3 20.0
Agree 39 35.5 35.5 55.5
Strongly Agree 49 44.5 44.5 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.13: There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels

 

 

Table 3.14 and Figure 3.14 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore.” From the table 7.3% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 10% disagreed, 10% neither agreed nor disagreed, 29.1% agreed and 43.6% strongly agreed.

Table 3.14: Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore

Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 8 7.3 7.3 7.3
Disagree 11 10.0 10.0 17.3
Neither agree nor disagree 11 10.0 10.0 27.3
Agree 32 29.1 29.1 56.4
Strongly Agree 48 43.6 43.6 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 3.14: Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore

 

3.4         CHI-SQUARE TESTS

3.4.1     Test 1

To establish the association between Training and Environment safety, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 3.15 and Table 3.16 below.

Table 3.15: Training and Environment safety

Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels  * Environment safety depends on training  offered to Seafarers Cross tabulation
Environment safety depends on training  offered to Seafarers Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels Strongly disagree Count 1 0 1 0 3 5
% of Total 0.9% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 2.7% 4.5%
Disagree Count 0 2 0 0 4 6
% of Total 0.0% 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 3.6% 5.5%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 0 0 2 6 5 13
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 5.5% 4.5% 11.8%
Agree Count 0 1 0 9 13 23
% of Total 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 8.2% 11.8% 20.9%
Strongly Agree Count 3 2 7 20 31 63
% of Total 2.7% 1.8% 6.4% 18.2% 28.2% 57.3%
Total Count 4 5 10 35 56 110
% of Total 3.6% 4.5% 9.1% 31.8% 50.9% 100.0%

 

Table 3.16 indicates a p value of 0.039, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between Training and Environment safety. Table 3.15 shows that more than 78% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels” also agreed, “Environment safety depends on training  offered to Seafarers.”

Table 3.16: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 27.263a 16 .039
Likelihood Ratio 27.009 16 .041
Linear-by-Linear Association .238 1 .625
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18.

 

 

3.4.2     Test 2

To establish the association between Training and Technological changes in the shipping, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 3.17 and Table 3.18 below.

Table 3.17: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 33.446a 16 .006
Likelihood Ratio 33.710 16 .006
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.748 1 .186
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .27.

Table 3.17 indicates a p value of 0.006, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between Training and Technological changes in the shipping. Table 3.18 shows that more than 78% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels” also agreed, “Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels.”

 

Table 3.18: Training and Technological changes in the shipping

Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels  * Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels Cross tabulation
Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels Strongly disagree Count 2 1 0 0 2 5
% of Total 1.8% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 4.5%
Disagree Count 0 2 0 0 4 6
% of Total 0.0% 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 3.6% 5.5%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 1 0 1 4 7 13
% of Total 0.9% 0.0% 0.9% 3.6% 6.4% 11.8%
Agree Count 2 0 0 9 12 23
% of Total 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 8.2% 10.9% 20.9%
Strongly Agree Count 1 5 10 19 28 63
% of Total 0.9% 4.5% 9.1% 17.3% 25.5% 57.3%
Total Count 6 8 11 32 53 110
% of Total 5.5% 7.3% 10.0% 29.1% 48.2% 100.0%

3.5         SUMMARY

The findings indicate that majority of the respondents agreed with all statements on safety training and its impact on vessel safety. The researcher established that .raining is important for proper handling of onshore vessels

CHAPTER 4    –   SAFETY AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN OIL TANKERS

4.1         INTRODUCTION

Chapter includes findings on safety and health problem in oil tankers. The chapter highlights descriptive statistical analysis and chi-square test, which was used to test relationships between variable.

4.2         DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires on-board a vessel.” From the table 5.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 6.4% disagreed, 12.7% neither agreed nor disagreed, 26.4% agreed and 49.1% strongly agreed.

Table 4.1: Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires on-board a vessel

Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel

 

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 6 5.5 5.5 5.5
Disagree 7 6.4 6.4 11.8
Neither agree nor disagree 14 12.7 12.7 24.5
Agree 29 26.4 26.4 50.9
Strongly Agree 54 49.1 49.1 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.1: Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires on-board a vessel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “All seafarers are aware of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause.” From the table 56.4% agree that all seafarers are aware of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause, 20.9% agree, 9.1% neither agree nor disagree while the remaining 12.6% disagree

Table 4.2: All seafarers are aware of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause

All seafarers are aware of the potential  harm an oil tanker can cause
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 13.6
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 22.7
Agree 23 20.9 20.9 43.6
Strongly Agree 62 56.4 56.4 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 4.2: All seafarers are aware of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause

 

 

Table 4.3 and Figure 4.3 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel.” From the table 3.6% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 9.1% neither agreed nor disagreed, 27.3% agreed and 50.9% strongly agreed.

Table 4.3: Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel

Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 4 3.6 3.6 3.6
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 12.7
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 21.8
Agree 30 27.3 27.3 49.1
Strongly Agree 56 50.9 50.9 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 4.3: Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel

 

 

Table 4.4 and Figure 4.4 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “There is a range of health problems on-board oil tankers.” From the table 7.3% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 10.9% disagreed, 8.2% neither agreed nor disagreed, 30.9% agreed and 42.7% strongly agreed.

Table 4.4: There is a range of health problems on-board oil tankers

There are a range of health problems onboard oil tankers
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 8 7.3 7.3 7.3
Disagree 12 10.9 10.9 18.2
Neither agree nor disagree 9 8.2 8.2 26.4
Agree 34 30.9 30.9 57.3
Strongly Agree 47 42.7 42.7 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.4: There are a range of health problems on-board oil tankers

 

Table 4.5 and Figure 4.5 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety on-board oil tankers.” From the table 8.2% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 6.4% disagreed, 10.9% neither agreed nor disagreed, 28.2% agreed and 46.4% strongly agreed.

Table 4.5: Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety on-board oil tankers

Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety onboard oil tankers
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 9 8.2 8.2 8.2
Disagree 7 6.4 6.4 14.5
Neither agree nor disagree 12 10.9 10.9 25.5
Agree 31 28.2 28.2 53.6
Strongly Agree 51 46.4 46.4 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.5: Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety on-board oil tankers

 

 

Table 4.6 and Figure 4.6 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers.” From the table 7.3% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 11.8% disagreed, 10% neither agreed nor disagreed, 26.4% agreed and 44.5% strongly agreed.

Table 4.6: Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers

Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 8 7.3 7.3 7.3
Disagree 13 11.8 11.8 19.1
Neither agree nor disagree 11 10.0 10.0 29.1
Agree 29 26.4 26.4 55.5
Strongly Agree 49 44.5 44.5 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.6: Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers

 

 

Table 4.7 and Figure 4.7 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Hazards are adequately prevented by risk assessment.” From the table 6.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 11.8% disagreed, 12.7% neither agreed nor disagreed, 31.8% agreed and 37.3% strongly agreed.

Table 4.7: Hazards are adequately prevented by risk assessment

Hazards are adequately prevented by risk assessment
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 7 6.4 6.4 6.4
Disagree 13 11.8 11.8 18.2
Neither agree nor disagree 14 12.7 12.7 30.9
Agree 35 31.8 31.8 62.7
Strongly Agree 41 37.3 37.3 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.7: Hazards are adequately prevented from risk assessment

 

 

Table 4.8 and Figure 4.8 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Workplace on-board vessels are frequently inspected.” From the table 10% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 9.1% neither agreed nor disagreed, 26.4% agreed and 45.5% strongly agreed.

Table 4.8: Workplace on-board vessels are frequently inspected

Workplace onboard vessels are frequently inspected
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 11 10.0 10.0 10.0
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 19.1
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 28.2
Agree 29 26.4 26.4 54.5
Strongly Agree 50 45.5 45.5 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.8: Workplace on-board vessels are frequently inspected

 

Table 4.9 and Figure 4.9 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Hazard protection leads to safety and health on-board oil tankers.” From the table 9.1% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 10% disagreed, 11.8% neither agreed nor disagreed, 25.5% agreed and 43.6% strongly agreed.

Table 4.9: Hazard protection leads to safety and health on-board oil tankers

Hazard protection leads to safety and health onboard oil tankers
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 10 9.1 9.1 9.1
Disagree 11 10.0 10.0 19.1
Neither agree nor disagree 13 11.8 11.8 30.9
Agree 28 25.5 25.5 56.4
Strongly Agree 48 43.6 43.6 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 4.9: Hazard protection leads to safety and health on-board oil tankers

 

 

 

 

4.3         CHI-SQUARE TESTS

4.3.1     Test 1

To establish the association between Measures on-board a vessel and seafarers awareness of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 4.10 and Table 4.11 below.

Table 4.10: Measures on-board a vessel and seafarers awareness of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause

Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel * All seafarers are aware of the potential  harm an oil tanker can cause Cross tabulation
All seafarers are aware of the potential  harm an oil tanker can cause Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel Strongly disagree Count 2 0 0 0 4 6
% of Total 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 3.6% 5.5%
Disagree Count 0 2 0 1 4 7
% of Total 0.0% 1.8% 0.0% 0.9% 3.6% 6.4%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 0 0 2 3 9 14
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 2.7% 8.2% 12.7%
Agree Count 0 1 2 4 22 29
% of Total 0.0% 0.9% 1.8% 3.6% 20.0% 26.4%
Strongly Agree Count 3 7 6 15 23 54
% of Total 2.7% 6.4% 5.5% 13.6% 20.9% 49.1%
Total Count 5 10 10 23 62 110
% of Total 4.5% 9.1% 9.1% 20.9% 56.4% 100.0%

 

Table 4.11 indicates a p value of 0.022, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between Measures on-board a vessel and seafarers’ awareness of the potential harm an oil tanker can cause. Table 4.10 shows that more than 75% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel” also agreed, “All seafarers are aware of the potential  harm an oil tanker can cause.”

Table 4.11: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 29.340a 16 .022
Likelihood Ratio 28.478 16 .028
Linear-by-Linear Association .321 1 .571
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .27.

 

 

4.3.2     Test 2

To establish the association between Measures on-board a vessel and likeliness of oil pillage to occur in oil tanker, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 4.12 and Table 4.13 below.

Table 4.12: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 34.310a 16 .005
Likelihood Ratio 34.695 16 .004
Linear-by-Linear Association .082 1 .774
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 20 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .22.

 

Table 4.12 indicates a p value of 0.005, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between measures on-board a vessel and likeliness of oil pillage to occur in oil tanker. Table 4.13 shows that more than 75% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel” also agreed, “Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel Cross.”

Table 4.13: Measures on-board a vessel and likeliness of oil pillage to occur in oil tanker

Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel * Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel Cross tabulation
Oil pillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel Strongly disagree Count 1 0 0 1 4 6
% of Total 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 3.6% 5.5%
Disagree Count 0 2 0 1 4 7
% of Total 0.0% 1.8% 0.0% 0.9% 3.6% 6.4%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 0 0 3 4 7 14
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 2.7% 3.6% 6.4% 12.7%
Agree Count 1 3 1 17 7 29
% of Total 0.9% 2.7% 0.9% 15.5% 6.4% 26.4%
Strongly Agree Count 2 5 6 7 34 54
% of Total 1.8% 4.5% 5.5% 6.4% 30.9% 49.1%
Total Count 4 10 10 30 56 110
% of Total 3.6% 9.1% 9.1% 27.3% 50.9% 100.0%

 

 

 

4.3.3     Test 3

To establish the association between measures on-board a vessel and health problems on-board oil tankers, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 4.14 and Table 4.15 below.

Table 4.14: Measures on-board a vessel and health problems on-board oil tankers

Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel * There are a range of health problems onboard oil tankers Cross tabulation
There are a range of health problems onboard oil tankers Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel Strongly disagree Count 1 0 0 0 5 6
% of Total 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.5% 5.5%
Disagree Count 0 3 0 1 3 7
% of Total 0.0% 2.7% 0.0% 0.9% 2.7% 6.4%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 0 0 4 3 7 14
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 3.6% 2.7% 6.4% 12.7%
Agree Count 3 4 0 12 10 29
% of Total 2.7% 3.6% 0.0% 10.9% 9.1% 26.4%
Strongly Agree Count 4 5 5 18 22 54
% of Total 3.6% 4.5% 4.5% 16.4% 20.0% 49.1%
Total Count 8 12 9 34 47 110
% of Total 7.3% 10.9% 8.2% 30.9% 42.7% 100.0%

 

Table 4.15 indicates a p value of 0.022, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between measures on-board a vessel and health problems on-board oil tankers. Table 4.14 shows that more than 73% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel” also agreed, “There are a range of health problems onboard oil tankers.”

Table 4.15: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 29.365a 16 .022
Likelihood Ratio 32.102 16 .010
Linear-by-Linear Association .220 1 .639
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .44.

 

4.4         SUMMARY

Results of the findings indicate that majority of the respondents agreed that Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety onboard oil tankers. Significant relationship was established to exist between measures on-board a vessel and health problems on-board oil tankers

 

CHAPTER 5    –   ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN ENSURING VESSEL SAFETY

5.1         INTRODUCTION

The purpose of the chapter five is to highlight statistical analysis on role of stakeholders in ensuring vessel safety. Therefore, both chi-square test and descriptive statistical analysis was use to analyze different variables on role of stakeholders in ensuring vessel safety.

5.2         DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS

Table 5.1 and Figure 5.1 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels.” From the table 8.2% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 11.8% disagreed, 9.1% neither agreed nor disagreed, 27.3% agreed and 43.6% strongly agreed.

Table 5.1: The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels

The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 9 8.2 8.2 8.2
Disagree 13 11.8 11.8 20.0
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 29.1
Agree 30 27.3 27.3 56.4
Strongly Agree 48 43.6 43.6 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.1: The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.2 and Figure 5.2 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels.” From the table 4.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 11.8% neither agreed nor disagreed, 40.9% agreed and 33.6% strongly agreed.

Table 5.2: The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels

The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on  marine vessels
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 13.6
Neither agree nor disagree 13 11.8 11.8 25.5
Agree 45 40.9 40.9 66.4
Strongly Agree 37 33.6 33.6 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.2: The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels

 

Table 5.3 and Figure 5.3 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties.” From the table 8.2% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 15.5% neither agreed nor disagreed, 25.5% agreed and 41.8% strongly agreed.

Table 5.3: The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties

The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 9 8.2 8.2 8.2
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 17.3
Neither agree nor disagree 17 15.5 15.5 32.7
Agree 28 25.5 25.5 58.2
Strongly Agree 46 41.8 41.8 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.3: The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties

 

 

Table 5.4 and Figure 5.4 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders’ insight and knowledge on a probable peril.” From the table 6.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 8.2% disagreed, 6.4% neither agreed nor disagreed, 28.2% agreed and 50.9% strongly agreed.

Table 5.4: Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril

Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 7 6.4 6.4 6.4
Disagree 9 8.2 8.2 14.5
Neither agree nor disagree 7 6.4 6.4 20.9
Agree 31 28.2 28.2 49.1
Strongly Agree 56 50.9 50.9 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.4: Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril

Table 5.5 and Figure 5.5 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved.” From the table 4.5% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9.1% disagreed, 9.1% neither agreed nor disagreed, 30% agreed and 47.3% strongly agreed.

Table 5.5: The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved

The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Disagree 10 9.1 9.1 13.6
Neither agree nor disagree 10 9.1 9.1 22.7
Agree 33 30.0 30.0 52.7
Strongly Agree 52 47.3 47.3 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.5: The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved

 

 

Table 5.6 and Figure 5.6 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition.” From the table 6.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 11.8% disagreed, 13.6% neither agreed nor disagreed, 38.2% agreed and 30% strongly agreed.

Table 5.6: Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition

Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 7 6.4 6.4 6.4
Disagree 13 11.8 11.8 18.2
Neither agree nor disagree 15 13.6 13.6 31.8
Agree 42 38.2 38.2 70.0
Strongly Agree 33 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.6: Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition

 

 

Table 5.7 and Figure 5.7 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important.” From the table 6.4% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 10% disagreed, 11.8% neither agreed nor disagreed, 26.4% agreed and 45.5% strongly agreed.

Table 5.7: Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important

Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 7 6.4 6.4 6.4
Disagree 11 10.0 10.0 16.4
Neither agree nor disagree 13 11.8 11.8 28.2
Agree 29 26.4 26.4 54.5
Strongly Agree 50 45.5 45.5 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.7: Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important

 

 

Table 5.8 and Figure 5.8 show the level of agreement of respondents with the statement “Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability.” From the table 7.3% of the respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 8.2% disagreed, 14.5% neither agreed nor disagreed, 38.2% agreed and 31.8% strongly agreed.

Table 5.8: Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability

Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly disagree 8 7.3 7.3 7.3
Disagree 9 8.2 8.2 15.5
Neither agree nor disagree 16 14.5 14.5 30.0
Agree 42 38.2 38.2 68.2
Strongly Agree 35 31.8 31.8 100.0
Total 110 100.0 100.0

 

Figure 5.8: Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability

 

 

 

5.3         CHI-SQUARE TESTS

5.3.1     Test 1

To establish the association between Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and probable risks on marine vessels, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 5.9 and Table 5.10 below.

Table 5.9: Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and probable risks on marine vessels

The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels * The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on  marine vessels Cross tabulation
The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on  marine vessels Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels Strongly disagree Count 3 0 1 1 4 9
% of Total 2.7% 0.0% 0.9% 0.9% 3.6% 8.2%
Disagree Count 0 3 0 5 5 13
% of Total 0.0% 2.7% 0.0% 4.5% 4.5% 11.8%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 0 0 1 5 4 10
% of Total 0.0% 0.0% 0.9% 4.5% 3.6% 9.1%
Agree Count 2 2 1 15 10 30
% of Total 1.8% 1.8% 0.9% 13.6% 9.1% 27.3%
Strongly Agree Count 0 5 10 19 14 48
% of Total 0.0% 4.5% 9.1% 17.3% 12.7% 43.6%
Total Count 5 10 13 45 37 110
% of Total 4.5% 9.1% 11.8% 40.9% 33.6% 100.0%

 

Table 5.10 indicates a p value of 0.004, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and probable risks on marine vessels. Table 5.9 shows that more than 70% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels” also agreed, “The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on  marine vessels.”

Table 5.10: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 35.051a 16 .004
Likelihood Ratio 31.880 16 .010
Linear-by-Linear Association .389 1 .533
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .41.

 

5.3.2     Test 2

To establish the association between Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and Crew ignoring adequate use of PPE in their duties, the researcher conducted a chi-square test for equal proportion as shown in Table 5.11 and Table 5.12 below.

Table 5.11: Chi-Square Tests

Chi-Square Tests
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 30.031a 16 .018
Likelihood Ratio 27.835 16 .033
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.171 1 .075
N of Valid Cases 110
a. 19 cells (76.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .74.

Table 5.11 indicates a p value of 0.018, which is less than 0.05. Since p value is less than 0.05, it implies that there is a significant relationship between Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and Crew ignoring adequate use of PPE in their duties. Table 5.12 shows that more than 67% of the respondents who agreed with the statement “The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels” also agreed, “The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties.”

Table 5.12: Stakeholders participation in safety and health on-board marine vessels and Crew ignoring adequate use of PPE in their duties

The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels * The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties Cross tabulation
The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties Total
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly Agree
The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health onboard marine vessels Strongly disagree Count 4 1 2 0 2 9
% of Total 3.6% 0.9% 1.8% 0.0% 1.8% 8.2%
Disagree Count 1 2 0 3 7 13
% of Total 0.9% 1.8% 0.0% 2.7% 6.4% 11.8%
Neither agree nor disagree Count 0 1 3 2 4 10
% of Total 0.0% 0.9% 2.7% 1.8% 3.6% 9.1%
Agree Count 2 1 3 7 17 30
% of Total 1.8% 0.9% 2.7% 6.4% 15.5% 27.3%
Strongly Agree Count 2 5 9 16 16 48
% of Total 1.8% 4.5% 8.2% 14.5% 14.5% 43.6%
Total Count 9 10 17 28 46 110
% of Total 8.2% 9.1% 15.5% 25.5% 41.8% 100.0%

 

5.4         SUMMARY

The findings show that various stakeholders perform different roles which are key in ensuring oil tanker safety. For instance, majority of the respondents agreed that Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril.

CHAPTER 6    –   DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

6.1         INTRODUCTION AND DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

This chapter focuses on discussing the research findings from the analysis. Therefore, the chapter considers various findings that emerged including safety training and its impact on vessel safety, safety and health in oil tankers and the role of stakeholders in ensuring vessel safety. The chapter closes with a summary of the key elements that were addressed in the discussion. The demographic analysis in this study included the age, education level, gender, working designation and how the individuals involved are conversant with the research subject. Participants were asked to either strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree and strongly disagree on various questions presented to them

6.2         SAFETY TRAINING AND ITS IMPACT ON VESSEL SAFETY

Safety training is of major importance in maintaining vessel safety. As the shipping industry experiences massive transformation training is called for to ensure that any possible hazards posed by the technological or other changes are understood in the earliest possible time. Training goes a long way in filling gaps that may be otherwise ignored under normal conditions.

Preparing for any possible situation that is hazardous becomes a challenge when those involved have no idea on how to handle the situation. According to Ballesio and Diettrich (2002) business needs to guarantee that all representatives, both supervisory and nonsupervisory have the potential to handle any potential challenges. Employees presented to any work environment dangers must be prepared with extensive training on combating any probable danger and effective handling of the equipment (Radford 2013).

The literature review argues that OSHA training on SHP has been widely used to equip seafarers with ability to handle any possible adverse challenge. The strategies used by managers to train and equip their staff change gradually relying upon elements, for example, work environment estimate, the kind of operations being performed, working environment dangers and utmost the change of technological trends within the industry. According to Havold and Nesset (2007), a few managers may find it competent to educate their works from within; others contract contracting companies to educate their workers. A key to viable in preparing is coordinating security and wellbeing issues into every single authoritative activities. Wellbeing and wellbeing preparing is frequently best when joined into other preparing, for example, preparing on occupation execution prerequisites and occupation hones.

While preparing should be suitable to the security what’s more, wellbeing states of the working environment, there are crucial points that security and wellbeing preparing ought to cover: The nature of the risks to which the worker might be presented and how to remember them, what the business is doing to control these perils, protective measures that the representative needs to take after to counteract or minimize introduction to these perils, procedures to be followed in an emergency, the business’ wellbeing and wellbeing program, and the representative’s part in that program, incorporating chances to take an interest in it (OSHA 2014). For preparing to be powerful it should be given in a way that representatives can get it. This implies the business, in creating and giving preparing, needs to consider the instructive levels, proficiency and dialect abilities of the representatives (Lamvik 2004)

From our research finding analysis, it was clear that training is important to maintain vessel safety from our analysis 57.3 % strongly agree, 20.9%agree, 11.8% are not certain and 10%disagree on this view. The analysis further illustrates that training is important for proper handling of onshore vessel , environment safety depends on training  offered to Seafarers, technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels, management offers information to employees  on safety onboard  onshore  vessels, management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels, there are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels, Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore, there is enough training equipment for a seafarer. Further the training is important and management contributes fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety raining is important for proper handling of onshore vessels. Most participants agree that training is important within the shipping industry

Safety training is the most effective way to ensure safety and health onboard oil tankers, safe environment, proper handling of vessels and the cargo. The shipping industry should therefore seek to continue improving training, training equipment and the number of those involved in the training process.

6.3         SAFETY AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN OIL TANKERS

Workplace health and safety issues generally constitute an important factor in the shipping industry (Oldenburg et al. 2013). Health of seafarers have for many decades been a subject of discussion as the ship industry remain the most dangerous workplaces (Sampson and Thomas 2003; Jaremin et al. 2006). Oldenburg and Jensen (2012 view that seafaring is looked upon as a hazardous occupations across the globe. Safety and health issues may arise due to such factors like vibrations noise oil tankers spillages and mishandling vessels among, others Understanding of health hazards posed within the profession is paramount to introduce measures to curb possible adversities. Employers should take steps toward addressing health related risks.

Factors that may contribute to health and safety issues include long working hours under a lot of pressure (Suppiah 2009b). It leads to accident and injuries and accidents (Spurgeon and Harrington 2001) the effect is  health implications for seafarers or
Shift work system operations  while working on-board ships has physiological effects (Miller and Nguyen 2003). Biological rhythm of the body is affected a result is a working, sleeping individual struggling to remain awake, fires among others.

The PPE is intended to protect seafarers against the risks associated with dangerous task. PPE protect individuals hence they are important to seafarers as they go on performing their duties whether large or small assignments (Cahoon and Hausgsletter 2008). This equipment include head protection, hand protection, eye protection, ear protection, respiratory protection, safety footwear, safety harness and body protection (Falck Safety Services 2014). Consequently, hazards elimination where possible is attainable. The most important step is to ensure proper use of equipment for its effectiveness. PPE are used and recommended by international shipping organizations to ensure operators safety and they can be used as control measures against risks.

Health related issues are caused by different issues. From our analysis companies in the shipping industry have taken major steps to ensure that there are protective measures put into place. Over 70% either strongly agrees or agrees with our research questions to evaluate the companies approach to such issues. 30% either is not certain or strongly disagrees or disagrees. It therefore means that mmeasures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires onboard a vessel, hazard protection leads to safety and health onboard oil tankers, oil spillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel, there are a range of health problems onboard oil tankers, Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety onboard oil tankers and safety equipment are available onboard vessels.

Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tanker, hazards are adequately prevented by risk assessment and wworkplace onboard vessels are frequently inspected and seafarers are mostly aware of probable risk onboard the vessels. To address safety and health problems such problems like fires are prevented by ensuring that there are no oil spillages and that the safety committee adequately plays its role.

6.4         ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN ENSURING VESSEL SAFETY

Technology is not only instrumental to development of society but also to attaining most efficient environmental friendly systems that regulate performance of work. This has been very evident in the shipping industry (Winchester 2005).  Marlow and Mitrouss (2012) explain how the different ship owners are reducing the size of their ships. Oldenburg and Jensen (2012) further explain the move towards reducing crew size on the vessels due to the shipping technology. As much as these is happening in the industry many researchers have failed to recognize the technological impact that ship technology like oil tankers and other vessel equipment on safety and health and the overall environment. This transformation calls for the role of the various stakeholders within the system to work together for vessel safety.

To ensure online safety and health ship owners are faced with responsibilities towards the employees by maintain good working conditions through maintenance of vessels among other. The ship owners should ensure that suitable policy that explains on safety and health of seafarers per national and international laws consistent with international and national laws and regulation. Equipment including PPE should be properly maintained to ensure they are in proper working conditions to combat dangers a worker may face on-board, strenuous working positions and that seafarers health is not put at risk by ensuring safe use of every equipment  finally they can combat exposure to chemical agents. Other duties of sea owners include provision of medical equipment and personnel who are trained and certified per regulations Manuals and all necessary equipment and information should be made available in the ship lastly ship owners should ensure information  is relayed to sea fares pertaining to safety and health hazards.

Seafarers mostly the ones placed at risk in case of any accident or danger have a duty to ensure their safety, environment safety cargo and vessel safety. Seafarers are called to cooperate with the ship owner in implementation of safety and health measures, ensure they are responsible for their own safety and health and any person involved in their operation. Seafarer duties are broad and may include other duties like take care of PPE entrusted to them, comply with health and safety measures among others.

According to Cremers (2010), an environment that is well catered for means that attaining safety and health within such an environment is possible. Thus a business must always consider the environment in conducting its operations and work towards preventing any operation that negatively affects the environment (Yabuki 2011). Regulatory compliance guidelines should be adhered to (Oldenburg and Jensen 2013).  Avoiding spills from the vessels, emission that result to environmental pollution should remain a key priority. According to Group Health, Safety, Environment Security handbook (2012), environmental performance must be assessed within the specific company and ensuring that knowledge on how any practice affects the environment is clear. To ensure a safe environment planning should be used, design and risk assessment to avoid and reduce environmental risk. Stakeholder participation thus is advocated for to ensure that a safe environment is attained.

From the research it was evident that change in the shipping industry. From the findings various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels. However, there is the finding that, stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels; the crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties. The research also indicated that vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders’ insight and knowledge on a probable peril. If stakeholders are adequately considered the research shows that the shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved, training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition. Other important factors per the research include awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important. Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability. The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels. Stakeholders involvement was, therefore, noted as an important for risk assessment, training, exposure to technological changes warranting stakeholders awareness, knowledge on handling PPE and vessels without causing any hazard likely to lead to accidents and damages whose final effect is health and safety problems. Building strong stakeholder involved ensures sustainability of working conditions within the companies.

6.5         SUMMARY

The above discussion indicates that training is very important on oil tankers safety and health, environmental safety and vessel handling. Stakeholders within the industry need to be involved if the whole system is to work effectively. It is therefore important that as technology improve measures are addressed to handle any issues that arise in an effort safety and health.

CHAPTER 7    –   CONCLUSION AND REFLECTION

The aim of this study was to analyse the health and safety on-board oil tankers. As workplace health and safety issues generally constitute an important factor in the shipping industry, this study employed a quantitative methodology to evaluate the different variables that are important to filling the existing gap. Quantitative methodology was considered by using questionnaires that were analyzed and later statistical presented to draw analysis, discussions and conclusion for this research. Evidently, the study achieved all its objectives in line with the objective. Form the background of this research, it was noted that knowledge and training are important to handle safety of onshore vessels. This is because oil tankers pose a threat onshore ability to handle them effectively and curtail against any possible danger is important. Also, the role of various stakeholders is important for onshore safety success. The study had six chapters, which were well addressed including introduction, literature review, methodology, analysis on findings, discussion and conclusion and recommendations. The literature review showed that a safety and health on-board shipping vessel is a major factor in the shipping industry.

The findings of the study showed that improving health and safety on-board oil tankers requires multiple approaches. The approaches include  training of workers, all stakeholders involved should be included in formulating a strong safety and health system, vessels and all equipment should  be frequently checked, adherence to national and international guidelines on safety and health on board oil tankers and onshore on any vessel, welfare and working conditions, funding of training and skills, frequent risk assessment. The study has shown that stakeholders level of participation impact on the outcome of safety of seafarers. Also, training and prior knowledge on any probable risks that are likely to rise caused by oil tankers define the intensity with wish a hazard may occur or may fail to occur if knowledge and training are put into proper use. Safety training is of major importance in maintaining vessel safety. As the shipping industry experiences massive transformation training is called for to ensure that any possible hazards posed by the technological or other changes are understood in the earliest possible time. OSHA training on SHP has been widely used to equip seafarers with ability to handle any possible adverse challenge. In this view, STCW now enhances tanker training since it contains new comprehensive Competence Tables for training in oil, chemical and gas tanker operations are both essential at higher levels.

The findings in this study further showed the importance risk assessment. Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tanker, hazards are adequately prevented by risk assessment and wworkplace onboard vessels are frequently inspected and seafarers are mostly aware of probable risk onboard the vessels. From the changes and trends occurring in the shipping industry, it is necessary that current research are done to aid in helping the shipping industry identify gaps that are currently existing in the industry for safety and health and towards a healthy environment while considering the technological, weather and geographical changes. The identifiable gaps were noted in training, identifying potential hazards and involving various stakeholders working within the system exist. Consequently enough measures need to be embraced to assist in this.

Health related issues are caused by different issues. From our analysis companies in the shipping industry have taken major steps to ensure that there are protective measures put into place. Unfortunately the study revealed that many researchers have failed to recognize the technological impact that ship technology like oil tankers and other vessel equipment on safety and health and the overall environment. This transformation calls for the role of the various stakeholders within the system to work together for vessel safety.

The research revealed that ship owners should ensure that suitable policy that explains on safety and health of seafarers per national and international laws consistent with international and national laws and regulation. Other duties of sea owners include provision of medical equipment and personnel who are trained and certified per regulations Manuals and all necessary equipment. From the research, it was evident that change in the shipping industry is inevitable. From the findings various stakeholders should adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels. Stakeholders involvement is therefore important for risk assessment, training, exposure to technological changes warranting stakeholders awareness, knowledge on handling PPE and vessels without causing any hazard likely to lead to accidents and damages whose final effect is health and safety problems. However, there is the finding that, stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on marine vessels; the crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties.

Ensuring that safety working practices are maintained at all times is important should be a key concern for all stakeholders. Safety working conditions including importance of adherence to safe working practices, safety and protective devices available to protect against potential hazards aboard ship, while entering enclosed spaces precautions should be taken, adaptation with global measures with reference to accident prevention and occupational health. With the approach as the shipping industry adapts to technological changes safety and health is assured to those practicing onshore.

Environmental performance must also be assessed within the specific company and ensuring that knowledge on how any practice affects the environment is clear. To ensure a safe environment planning should be used, design and risk assessment to avoid and reduce environmental risk. Brief reactions to such reports are a fundamental way that the shipping industry can demonstrate that worker data is wanted. Seafarer support can be individual and direct, for example, representative meetings or studies. At little work environments; for instance, workers inclusion might be expert by the business conversing with representatives over the span of a work environment walkthrough. It is evident that the shipping industry will maintain health and safety practices if in the factors studied in the research are put into consideration. Based on statistics and studies, effective management of workplace safety and health can substantially reduce employee fatalities, injuries, and illness. Costs associated with safety and health on-board vessels can also be reduced. As a result around the globe nations embrace regulations and guide lines in their workplace on (SHPs) as they handle their employees and working vessels. This entails prevention of accidents, injuries and illness for sustainability of a working condition in the shipping industry. For effective workplace safety and health various essential are vital. These include management commitment and leadership, employee participation, hazard identification, assessment and control, accident and incident investigation, training, program evaluation, participation, adherence to international and national regulations and guidelines recordkeeping and procedures for multi-employer workplaces. All these are factor that every master, ship owner and seafarer should be able to understand taking the only way that a safe and healthy onshore vessel handling will be achieved.

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Allison, P., McCulloch, K, McLaughlin P, Tett, L and Edwards, V. (2006) ‘An International Study of The Characteristics and Value of the Sail Training Experience’ Interim Report to the STI Conference November 2006, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Ballesio, J. and Dietrich, D. (2002), Risk and reliability applications to marine classification, Proc. European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL, Lyon.

Bauer, P.J (2008) The Maritime Labour Convention: an adequate guarantee of seafarer rights, or an impediment to true reforms? Chic J Int Law 8(2):643–659

Bhattacharya, Y. (2014), “Employee engagement in the shipping industry: A study of engagement among Indian officers”, WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs.

Bloor, M., Thomas, M., Lane, T., (2000) Health risks in the global shipping industry: an overview. Health Risk Soc 2(3):329–340

Bolle, P. (2006) ‘The ILO’s New Convention on Maritime Labour: An innovative instrument’ International Labour Review

Bonnin, D. Lane, T. Ruggunan S, Wood, G. (2004) Training and development in the maritime industry: the case of South Africa. Hum Resour Dev Int 7(1):7–22

Brien, O.B (20150 Global Trade Take Aways; Three hazards of shipping by sea and how to avoid them Retrieved from<: http://www.tradeready.ca/2015/trade-takeaways/three-hazards-shipping-by-sea-avoid/>

Cahoon .S, Haugstetter. H, (2008) Shipping, shortages and generation Y. 8th International Conference on Maritime Training, Communication and Technology (MARTECH), Singapore, 13–14 October 2008, p 9

Couper A (2000) Implications of maritime globalization for the crews of merchant ships. J Marit Res 2(1):1–8
Couper A (2012) Perceptions and attitudes of seafarers towards maritime regulations: an historical perspective. In: Chircop A, Letalik N, McDorman TL, Rolston S (eds) The regulation of international shipping: international and comparative perspectives: essays in honour of Edgar Gold. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, pp 429–442
Cremers P (2010) How to attract entrants to shipping industries: introduction of an actual experience by shipping industries. Seminar on the Problem of the Global Shortage of Seafarers and the role of the Shipping Industry through CSR activities, London, pp 171–180

Couper, A. (2012) Perceptions and attitudes of seafarers towards maritime regulations: an historical perspective. In: Chircop A, Letalik N, McDorman TL, Rolston S (eds) The regulation of international shipping: international and comparative perspectives: essays in honour of Edgar Gold. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, pp 429–442

Deloitte (2011) An independent review of the economic requirement for trained seafarers in the UK Final Report to DfT and Review Panel, Deloitte/Oxford Economics.

Dimitrova DN, Blanpain R (2010) Seafarers’ rights in the globalized maritime industry. Kluwer Law International BV, Netherlands
Eler G, Calambuhay J, Bernas L, Magramo M (2009) Officers’ shortage: viewpoints from stakeholders. Int JMar Navig Saf Sea Transp 3(4):471–474
Elo S, Kyngas H (2008) The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs 62(1):107–115
Fei J (2013) Knowledge management in the shipping industry. Lap Lambert, Germany

EXXONMMOBIL. (2010), Marine environmental, safety and quality assurance
criteria for seagoing vessels service, accessed 14 Feb 2013, Retrieve from
http://www.krs.co.kr/kor/dn/T/MESQAC%202010%20Rev.01.pdf

Gekara VO (2009) Understanding attrition in UK maritime education and training. Glob Soc Educ 7(2):217–232

Gilbreath, T. (1997), United States Coast Guard, Marine Safety and Environmental Protection Business Plan 1997, Part V– Performance Plan, F. – Areas of Business Focus, 5. – Port State Control, September 1997 [On-line], Available at: http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/gmhome.html

Gold, E. (2004) From privilege to peril. WMU J Marit Aff 3(1):51–66

Graham, C.A.E (2009) Maritime security and seafarers’ welfare: towards harmonization. WMU J Marit Aff 8(1):71–87
Grey, M. (2003) The image of the shipping industry. WMU J Marit Aff 2(1):1–3

Grimsmo, P.owney H, Harris, EC, Reading I, and Coggon D (2010) Occupational Health Needs of Commercial Fishermen in South-West England. Occup Med (Lond) 60 (1) pp49-53 first published online September 21, 2009

Havold, J.I and Nesset, E. (2007) From safety culture to safety orientation: Validation and simplification of a safety orientation scale using a sample of seafarers working for Norwegian ship owners. Paper submitted to an international safety journal.

Havold, J.I. (2005b). Safety-culture in a Norwegian shipping company. Journal of Safety Research 36, p441-458.
Havold, J.I. (2002). Some elements of safety orientation: Safety culture factors and group differences between nationalities, occupation and vessels in a Norwegian shipping company. Working paper. Alesund University College.

Holta, B. (2005). Lessons from casualty analysis – navigation technology Nor- shipping Conference, 9th of July.

Independent Panel (2011) Review of Government Support for Maritime Training-Accessed on-line

International Labour Organisation. 2001, The Impact on Seafarers’ Living and Working
Conditions of Changes in the Structure of the Shipping Industry, Report for discussion at the
29th Session of the Joint Maritime Commission, Geneva, Switzerland.

International Labour office Geneva(1997) on Accident preventing on board ship at sea and in port ; An ILO code of practice , Geneva, 2nd Ed.

International Maritime Organization (2002),Guidelines for Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) for use in the IMO Rule-Making Process, MSC/Circ. 1023, MEPC/Circ, London.

Iversen R (2011) The mental health of seafarers—good news and bad news. Ausmarine 34(2):5
Jaremin B, Kotulak E, Starnawska M, Tomaszunas S (2006) Causes and circumstances of deaths of Polish seafarers during sea voyages. J Travel Med 3(2):91–95

Kahveci E (2007) Port-based welfare services for seafarers. Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC),Cardiff
Kirby SM (2011) The criminalization of seafarers involved in marine pollution incidents. Company of Master Mariners of Canada International Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Kirby SM (2012) The continuing criminalization of seafarers: where to go from here? In: Chircop A, Letalik N, McDorman TL, Rolston S (eds) The regulation of international shipping: international and comparative perspectives: essays in honour of Edgar Gold. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, pp 443–464
Knudsen F (2009) Paperwork at the service of safety? Workers’ reluctance against written procedures exemplified by the concept of ‘seamanship’. Saf Sci 47(2):295–303
Kohlbacher F (2006) The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum Qual Soc Res 7(1). http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/75/153

Kristiansen, S. (2005). Maritime transportation: safety management and risk analysis. Elsevier/Butterworth– Heinemann, Amsterdam.

Lamvik, GM. and Bye, R. (2004). National culture and safe work practice – A comparison between Filipinos and Norwegian seafaring professionals” Probabilistic Safety Assessment and ManagementVolum 3. Spitzer, Schmocker and Dang (Eds). London:Springer.
Lamvik, G.M., Ravn, J.E. (2006). National culture and safety performance – offshore drilling. Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference 2006 – ESREL 2006 – Estoril 18-22 sept 06 Safety and Re

Mackay, S. and Wright, T. (2008) Seafarers in a global world: the changing needs of seafarers for advice, support and representation

MA- 3L- HSE-005(2012) Group Health Safety environment and Safety hardbook

Maritime Charities Funding Group research programme (2007)  The needs of the UK seafaring community: Supporting seafarers and their families challenges for the future

Martin, .J.M.C (2011) The seafarers rights and PandI coverage on the crew in the UK. Masters of Maritime Law Master of Maritime Law, Lund University project

Marlow P, Mitroussi K (2012) Shipping taxation. In: Talley WK (ed) The Blackwell companion to maritime economics. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 304–320

Miller,N.L, Nguyen, J. (2003) Working the nightshift on the USS John C. Stennis: implications for enhancing warfighter effectiveness. Second Humans Systems Integration Symposium, Vienna, Virginia, 23–24 June 2003

Nguyen, T. T., Ghaderi, H., Caesar, L. and Cahoon, S. (2014). Current challenges in the recruitment and retention of seafarers: An industry perspective from Vietnam , Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, Vol.30, pp.217-242.

O’Dea, A. and Flin, R. (2001). Site managers and safety leadership in the offshore oil and gas industry. Safety Science, 37, 1, 39-57.

Oldenburg M, Jensen HJ (2012) Merchant seafaring: a changing and hazardous occupation. Occup Environ Med

Oldenburg M, Jensen H-J, Wegner,R., (2013)  Burnout syndrome in seafarers in the merchant marine service. Int Arch Occup Environ Health

Paschalis, N. (2015) Tanker Ship Safety Systems

Philippine National Maritime Polytechnic PNMP, 2002. Mixed NationalityCrews: The Filipino Seafarers’s Experience. Manila: Philippine National Maritime Polytechnic

Progoulaki, M., (2006) Dealing with the Culture of the Maritime Manpower in a Socially Responsible Manner. International Conference (in memory of the late Professor Basil Metaxas) in Shipping in the Era of Social Responsibility, 14-16 September, Cephalonia, Greece

Precious Association Limited (2003) ,Availability and Training for Seafarers future impact,OECD
Roberts, S.E. and Marlow, PB. (2005). Traumatic work related mortality among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping, 1976–2002 Occupational and Environmental Medicine;62:172-180

Radford, L. (ed) (2013) UK Sea Fisheries Statistics 2012, Marine Management Organisation.

Roberts, S. (2000) ‘Occupational mortality among British merchant seafarers ;Maritime Policy andManagement 27.
Roberts, .S (2002) ‘Hazardous occupations in Great Britain’ The Lancet 60

Rosness, R. (2003). Safety culture: yet another buzzword to hide our confusion? SINTEF memo, Trondheim. Unpublished

Sjostrom, W. (2000). The Effect of Safety Regulations at Sea: Deck Loads Laws and the Nineteenth Century Timber Trade: International Journal of Transport Economics

Soma, T. (2005). Blue-chip or sub-standard – a data interrogation approach to identify safety characteristics of shipping organisations. DrIng thesis, NTNU, Trondheim.

Sorensen, JN. (2002). Safety culture: a survey of the state-of-the-art- Reliability Engineering and Systems Safety, 76:198-204

Spurgeon,A., Harrington, J.M (2001) Shiftwork and health. In: Koh D, Seng CK, Jeyaratnam J (eds) Textbook of occupational medicine practice. World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated, Singapore, pp 421–442

Suppiah, R. (2009a) International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) code and crew welfare. Marit Aff J Natl Marit Found India 5(1):57–72
Suppiah,R.(2009b) ISPS and manning issues. WMU J Marit Aff 8(1):89–103

Theotokas, I. et al., 2006. South-Asian Seafarers on Board Greek-Owned Ships: Organisational, Managerial and Cultural Issues. 2nd International Conference on EU – East and South Asia Trade, Investment, Logistics and E-Business, 9-11 October, Chios, Greece
USCG (2000) US Coast Guard Marine Safety Management System (marine casualty and pollution database

Wadsworth EJK, Allen PH, Mcnamara RL, Smith AP (2008) Fatigue and health in a seafaring population. Occup Med (Lond) 58(3):198–204
Walton RE, Allen C, Gaffney M (1987) Innovating to compete: lessons for diffusing and managing change in the workplace. Jossey-Bass, Inc., San Francisco

Wild A (2012) Securing the future of Australian shipping through officer education and training.Bachelors, University of Tasmania

Wilkinson, S. and Cahoon, S. (2008), The shipping industry as an industry of choice?
Extending the employer of choice strategy to overcome labour shortages‟, Proceedings of
the International Association of Maritime Economists Conference, Dalian, 2-4 April, 21
pages
Winchester N (2005) Global regulation of seafarer certification. Seafarers International Research Centre’s Fourth International Symposium, Cardiff, July 2005, pp 7–27
Wiseman N (2004) Consolidating international maritime labour standards. Int Marit Hum Elem Bull 4(5):1–8
Wu,B.(2004) Segmentation of global labour market for seafarers: quantitative evidence. Seafarers International Research Centre, Cardiff

Wyse,E.S (2011) Difference between qualitative Research and quantitative Research

Yabuki,H. (2011)  The 2010 Manila amendments to the STCW Convention. J Marit Res

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX A     Survey Questionnaire

Health and Safety Onboard Oil Tankers

Dear Respondent,

Thank you for agreeing to participate in this research into Health and Safety Onboard Oil Tankers. I am undertaking this research as a part of my Master degree programme of studies for the University.  This academic survey asks for your HONEST responses with regard to every section of the questionnaire. Since this is an academic survey, your views in the survey will be held private and used only for purposes of achieving the study aim and objectives. Hence, your personal details will remain anonymous and will not be disclosed to any third party. In addition, when the research is completed, your responses will be destroyed.

            SECTION 1: DEMOGRAPHIC AND GENERAL WORK INFORMATION

  General Information (Please Select the Appropriate Choice by Marking One Check-Box)
1.     Age:

18-24 years           25-34 years            35-44 years           45-54 years         Over 55 years

2.     Education Level:

O/A-Level     Diploma            Bachelor’s degree       Master’s degree        Doctorate degree

3.     Gender:

Male                         Female

 4. Work Designation:

Senior Manager        Assistant Manager        General manager        Supervisor

Non-managerial Employee

 

 

SECTION 2: WORK EXPERIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE OF ISSUE

  1. Do you regard yourself as being familiar with the subject of Health and Safety Onboard Oil Tankers?

 

Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Neither Agree nor Disagree  Agree  Strongly Agree

 

The following series of questions ask you to indicate how much you agree or disagree with a particular statement about productivity. Please kindly mark only one answer, which best shows your degree of agreement or disagreement with the statements set out below.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

7.1         Safety Training and its Impact on Vessel Safety

6.    Training is important for proper handling of onshore vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
7.     Environment safety depends on training  offered to Seafarers Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
8.    Technological changes in the shipping industry require enhanced training for safety and health of onshore vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
9.     Management contribute fully to enhance cargo and vessel safety Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
10. Management offers information to employees  on safety on-board  onshore  vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
11.  Management involves employees while developing policies for health and safety onshore vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
12.  There is enough training equipment for a seafarer Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
13. There are areas lacking in terms of safety and health in marine vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
14.  Seafarers are always aware of any probable safety and health issues onshore Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Safety and Health Problems in Oil Tankers
15.  Measures have adequately been put into place to prevent fires on-board a vessel Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
16.  All seafarers are aware of the potential  harm an oil tanker can cause Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
17.  Spillage is likely to occur in a maritime vessel Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
18.  There are a range of health problems on-board oil tankers Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
19.  Safety committees adequately ensure appropriate measures to ensure safety onboard oil tankers Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
20.  Risk assessment is adequately ensured to ensure safety on oil tankers Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
21.  Hazards are adequately prevented from risk assessment Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
22.  Workplace on-board vessels are frequently inspected Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
23.  Hazard protection leads to safety and health on-board oil tankers Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Role of safety officers, master, the crew, personnel shipping companies in ensuring safety of a vessel
24.  The various stakeholders adequately participate in safety and health on-board marine vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
25.  The various stakeholders will often ignore the magnitude of probable risks on  marine vessels Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
26. The crew ignores adequate use of PPE while going on handling on their duties Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
27.  Vessel safety and health depends on various stakeholders insight and knowledge on a probable peril Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
28. The shipping industry can achieve massive transformation in vessel safety if all are involved Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
29.  Training programs for each group contribute to maintaining safer working condition Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
30.  Awareness of cargo under transportation for the various groups of seafarers is important Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
31. Success in safer and health vessel operation is important for overall industry sustainability Strong Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

 

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION IN MAKING THIS SURVEY A SUCCESS

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                  Order Now

Place Order