History of Societal Acceptance for Homosexuality

There are obvious outgrowing numbers of gays and lesbians communities in our country and all over the world. People become increasingly engaged into homosexual affiliations. Many variables influence the emergence of sexuality in all young people. These variables are changes in biological processes, relationships and community interactions.

The level of acceptance between gays and lesbians has changed over the years. The researchers would like to determine the level of acceptance of the society between gays and lesbians.

This study was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the factors that lead to the acceptance of society between gays and lesbians. This study identified the variables and factors influencing and may affect the society’s level of acceptance between gays and lesbians.

Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to determine the factors that lead to the acceptance of the society between gays and lesbians.

Specifically, it sought to determine the following:

– What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

  • age
  • sex
  • civil status
  • religion
  • educational attainment

– What are the attitudes and behaviours of gays and lesbians which contributes to the level of acceptance of the society?

– What are the factors that influence the emergence of being homosexual individual?

– What are the challenges faced by lesbians and gays on the acceptance of the society?

– How the respondents are reacting to communities of gays and lesbians?

Significance of the Study

The study has significance to gays and lesbians, as they will be aware of the level of acceptance of the society to them and the factors that contribute to the willingness of the society towards them.

To the parents, that they will be aware of the condition of their children, as the findings were presented to them, they will be encouraged to improve their views and beliefs regarding homosexuality.

To the society, that they will be aware of the happenings to the homosexual based on their opinions, beliefs, and views, as they give it in relation to their acceptance and may find ways to improve the level of acceptance between gays and lesbians.

Scope, Delimitations & Limitations of the Study

The respondents of this study include 25 lesbians, 25 gays, 25 parents of either lesbian or gay, and 25 individuals who have gay/ lesbian friends. They will be asked regarding attitudes and behaviours of homosexuals which contribute to their level of acceptance in the society. They will be given chances to give their opinions, views and beliefs regarding homosexuality.

Definition of Terms

The terms included in the research paper will be defined to facilitate understanding of the study.

Lesbian. Homosexual woman; the condition in which a woman is sexually attracted to, or engages in sexual behaviour with another woman.

Gay. Homosexual man; the condition in which man is sexually attracted to, or engages in sexual behaviour with another man.

Homosexuality. The condition of being sexually attracted, covertly, or overtly, by members of one’s own sex.

Society. Organized and interdependent community.

Morality. Degree of conformity to moral principles.

Acceptance. Willingness to accept.

CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter includes discussion on related literature and studies both foreign and local, which provides relevant facts about the society’s level of acceptance between gays and lesbians. It also aims to determine the level of acceptance from past to present.

Foreign Studies

On the study conducted by the researchers at the Kaiser Family Foundation entitled “Inside- out : A report on the Experience’s of Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals in America and the Public’s Views on Issues and Advices Related to Sexual Orientation”. The are two national public opinion surveys: one, to gather information on the experiences of seslf-identified lesbians, gays and bisexuals: and the second to gauge the general public’s attitudes towards this group and their views on key policy issues related to sexual orientation. They did it to determine where the public really stands. Researchers found out that large majority of self-identified lesbians, gays, and bisexuals believe that there is more acceptance today compared to a few years ago. One third from their respondents say that their family or a family member has refused to accept them. According to the research, lesbians are more likely to report not having been accepted by their families.

It was found out that majority of the general public reports knowing someone who is gay, lesbian or bisexual believes that there is more acceptance of lesbians and gays today compared to a few years ago. Most say that greater acceptance is either good for the country or does not matter one way or the other. The majority also believes that homosexual behavior is a normal part of some people’s sexuality. Individuals age 65 and older those with a high school education or less and those who do not have lesbian and gay co-workers, friends or family members are least likely to have accepting attitudes towards lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Religious affiliation also has significant effect on attitudes and level of acceptance. Overall, the public is increasing accepting gays and lesbians in the society.

On the study conducted by Elizabeth Mehren entitled “Homosexuals finding more Acceptance. Poll says” states that gays and lesbians have experienced a dramatic rise in acceptance over the last two decades, according to a new Los Angeles Times Poll-2004. In ltwo Los Angeles Times polls in the mid- 1980s and other data from the same era, the level of sympathy toward gays and lesbians was half what it is today. Researchers found out that gay people in general are feeling more comfortable in society and society is feeling more comfortable with gay people. The study revealed that 62 percent say their community accepts gays and lesbians.

Based on the survey conducted by the members of the Public Agenda Organization entitled “Ambivalence and Mixed Messages”, acceptance of gays and lesbians has risen significantly, and currently about half of Americans say homosexuality should be an acceptable lifestyle. Survey questions about whether American society should accept homosexuality often draw different responses depending on the examples mentioned which is an indication of public ambivalence. Questions that raise the issue of fair treatment typically draw much higher levels of public support. For instance, substantial majorities of Americans say they support equal protection for homosexuals against hate crimes and equal rights in terms of housing and jobs. surveys show that slight majorities say a gay person could be a good role model and as good a parent as anyone, yet they are divided on whether they would allow a homosexual to baby-sit their child and half say they oppose allowing gay couples to adopt.

The survey conducted by the faculty & staff of The University of Arizona entitled “Equity’s 1992 Campus Climate Report” was aimed to investigate the climate for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals on campus. Majority of their sample comprised of heterosexuals. They allow their respondents to rate in the scale of 1-10 on every question. As a result, majority placed 8 to 10 range on the level of acceptance with the women expressing high level of acceptance than men. Respondents’ employment status had no significant impact on the acceptance scale, with no major differences surfacing among faculty, staff, and graduate students. They also asked if their religion influences their views on homosexuality; seventeen percent of the respondents marked “yes.” But not only religion appeared to influence people toward negative views. A series of items asked respondents to characterize the level of respect shown for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals by others in their department, specifically their immediate supervisor, co-workers, department head, and students. All in all, the responses to questions about respect levels in departments reveal that the immediate environment for gay, lesbian, and bisexual members of the University is not a particularly good one, but that department heads and supervisors show generally higher levels of respect than co-workers and students.

Justin J. Jagosh, in his thesis entitled “Moving toward understanding and acceptance: Parents’ experiences after finding out their children are gay, lesbian, and bisexual” aimed to explore how the parents will accept their child’s sexuality. Through qualitative inquiry, 12 Canadian parents (7 mothers and 5 fathers) were interviewed to develop an in-depth analysis of their thoughts, feelings, and actions in relation to having gay, lesbian, and bisexual children. He found out that parents went through a process of understanding and acceptance, in which they made sense of past experiences they had with their children, reacted emotionally to finding out, changed their perspectives on issues, and shared their experiences with others. There are still hindering factors but with the strategies suggested in which researchers, educators, health professionals, media personnel, parent support groups, and parents themselves can use like some mentioned above, it will not be difficult for parents to understand and accept their gay, lesbian, and bisexual children.

Foreign studies

On the book overview of Lesbian, Gay and bisexual identities and youth by Anthony R. O’Angelli, Charlotte Patterson explore the psychological dimentions of lesbian, gay and bisexual identities from puberty to adulthood. There are changes in biological processes, relationship and community interactions influence the emergence of sexuality in all young people.

The article, Chasing the Rainbow; Is a Gay Population an Engine of Urban Revival? Cities are beginning to think so by Richard Florida sees that openness to the gay community is a good indication of the low entry barriers to human capital that are so important to spurring creativity and generating high-tech growth. The homosexuality represents the last last frontier of diversity in our society, and thus a place that welcomes the gay community welcomes all kinds of people.

Also an article in New Zealand by the LGBT organization on that country which is entitled “A Civil Union Ceremony in Wellington” last December 20006 states that New Zealand society is generally fairly relaxed in acceptance of gays and lesbians. The gay-friendly is epitomized by the fact that there are several Member if Parliament who belong to the LGBT community, gay rights are protected by the New Zealand Human Rights Act. And New Zealand is relatively small population. The LGBT community is small, but still visible, with Pride festivals and LGBT events held around the country throughout the year.

Local Literature

J. Neil C. Garcia in his book “Philippine Gay Culture: The Last Thirty Years, Binabae to Bakla, Silahis to MSM” tackles the perception of Filipinos to gays and lesbians from the last thirty years. The anxiety of Western civilization toward its many different genders- not just masculine and feminine-finds its fecund expression in the varieties of camp (butch/femme) and transvestisms (macho, queer, transvestophilic, transgenderist, etc.) which, over the last century, have come to be institutionalized as legitimate self-expressions within the gay and lesbian cultures of the United States, Europe and Australia, This anxiety is deeply rooted in the Judeo-Christian metaphysical tradition which, until recently, was a rather inexorable force in the Western subject’s life. On the other hand, this study has argued that the Philippines has its own dualist tradition in respect of sexual identity, and although it would seem that the effeminate bakla and the mannish tomboy attest to the fluidity of gender concepts and roles in our culture, at the level of desire they merely reinforce the babae and the lalake, whose pale reflections they are. Rafael cannot be farther from the truth when he ascribes to kabaklaan the parodic and self-reflexive character which it doesn’t (yet) possess.

As things stand, the dominant conception of the bakla identity strictly confines the bakla to an agonistic effeminacy (a poor copy of femininity). In fact, the masculine bakla is simply unthinkable. He therefore must be a closet case, or a double-dealing fraud (silahis). Suffice it to say, then, that at the core of the social construction of the bakla is “coreness” itself. As a recent ethnography reiterates, the bakla is a “man with a woman’s heart” who, like a real woman, deeply desires a real man to be happy.

The “silence” of local psychological institutions in the early sixties about homosexuality and homosexual counseling seems strange, given that globally, the problems of adolescent homosexuals never fail to make it in the agenda of any conference on juvenile mental health (for only obvious reasons). By the rest of the 1960s, as well as the early seventies, however, this situation had palpably changed, and homosexuality was made to belong under the aegis of psychological science, as may be proven by the existence of positivist works on it which were written around this time. (A partial listing of the sundry academic studies on homosexuality in the Philippines is included in the last section of this book). The consequence of this is the renewed and intensified medical psychopathologization of the bakla as inversion’s homosexual: a man whose psychological being does not coincide with his anatomic sex. Only this time, his sexuality has become the central defining feature of his by now “psychosexually inverted” identity.

He concluded that the bakla is the only kind of (male) homosexual Philippine culture has, relatively speaking, known; and therefore also the only (male) homosexual Philippine culture has discriminated against and/or dismissed as sick, deviant and sinful-as bakla, precisely. Any local text proclaiming itself gay or homosexual cannot help but relate itself to and to situate itself within kabaklaan, hence.

CHAPTER 3

Methods and Procedure

Research Methodology

The researcher used descriptive method in the study. Descriptive method of research is a fact finding study with sufficient and accurate interpretation of the findings. It describes what is. It describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current condition, situation practices, or any phenomena. Since the study is concerned in the Analysis on the acceptance of the society between gays/lesbians.

Subjects of the Study

The researchers chose 100 respondents divided into four categories. These composed of 25 gays, 25 lesbians,25 parents of gays or lesbians and 25 individuals who have gays or lesbians friends.

The Sampling Technique

The researchers used simple random sampling and the size of the population is 200 and the study of population is people who have known a friend or any related of gay and lesbians also the respondents and the parents.

Sample:

25 respondents

25 gays

25 lesbians

25 parents

Those 25 to sum up of 100 is from the population of 200 and was chosen by simple random sampling.

Procedure of Data Gathering

The researchers used in the method of collecting data is normative survey, researchers used this for its very effective and looking for the commonalities of the said subject. This would be the best and most appropriate method to use in data gathering.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The role of the statistical treatment of data in research. The researchers is considering much in the age and gender also their state of consciousness and the rationality and also the emotion are being needed through the research.

Bill Carlson

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