Many traits of organisms, such as body form and color, are c

Many traits of organisms, such as body form and color, are controlled by specific proteins, in turn… Show more Many traits of organisms, such as body form and color, are controlled by specific proteins, in turn controlled by the DNA genetic sequence of nucleotides. The genetic control of color, as in aphids, does not usually shift during the life of an organism. Researchers found that some specific aphid populations shift from an original red coloration to a green coloration. Genetics could be a factor, if some programmed shift could be identified. Environmental conditions of the living and nonliving habitat could be a factor. Either way, the chemistry and observed changes of pigment molecules in the aphids can be studied with the scientific method. 1. What is the link between colored pigment molecules and other organic molecules? A.In the case of the aphids, the pigment molecules of bacteria are genetically passed on to the DNA of infected aphids. B. The DNA molecule genetic sequence regulates protein molecule function, which can specifically modify pigment structure that affects color. C.This one group of aphids can easily alter the pigment molecule structure by modifying its DNA nucleotide sequence and building new proteins. D. Pigment molecules are complex, made up of all four of the other organic molecule groups 2. The initial experiment of Koga and Fugatsu, in testing for any bacterial cause of aphid color change, involved all of these except A. a group of green aphids was grown, then killed in order to produce an extract to test on red aphids. B. a group of red aphids was grown as a control group. C. a group of aphids infected with Rickettsiella bacteria was grown, then killed in order to produce an extract to test on red aphids. D. the specific amounts of red and green pigment molecules were initially measured as dependent variables. E. a group of red aphids was treated with the independent variable of Rickettsiella bacteria infection from green aphids. 3. The observations and research on aphid color changes can most directly be summarized in that A. species of organisms can be chemically diverse and affect each other, even among similar groups of aphids and bacteria. B. it turned out that the green appearance of aphids was because of the large amount of green Ricketsiella bacteria coating their bodies. C. the method of paper fiber separation of pigment molecules showed that Ricketsiella bacteria were the source of the green coloration of aphids. D. Koga and Fugatsu proved that the color change from red to green in aphids was ecologically favorable to survival. 4. Researchers noted that only few aphids changed color to green from their original red. This is an unusual observation among any animals. What research question came out of the observations? A.Is the color shift of certain aphids due to genetics or some other factor? B. The color shift of certain aphids is due to genetics within the species. C. Do other aphids change colors as they age? D. Will green aphids change their color to red, or remain green as they age? • Show less

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